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Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of the Noise Emitting Parts of a Rotating Tire in the European Research Project TINO

1999-05-17
1999-01-1732
One of the objectives in the European Research project TINO is to identify, in detail, the surfaces of a rotating tire which actually generate the radiated noise. The approach is completely experimental and is based upon the ASQ (Airborne Sound Quantification) technique. The quantification of the contribution of the different tire surfaces to the sound pressure measured under defined conditions is carried out through a process of near-field measurements during rotation of the tire and static acoustic transfer function measurements. The ASQ method is further developed and tested when focussing at the applications. In first instance, the procedure has been validated and fine-tuned under well-controlled boundary conditions at a tire chassis dynamometer. The results of this first investigation served also as a “reference” set of data which has been used for verification and validation of numerical tire models.
Technical Paper

Tire/Pavement Interaction Noise Source Identification Using Multi-Planar Nearfield Acoustical Holography

1999-05-17
1999-01-1733
In this study, multi-planar Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) is used to investigate noise radiated from the front, side and rear areas of single tires on a two-wheel trailer. Contributions to the radiated noise from the leading edge, trailing edge, and sidewall of the tire are identified. Two tires - an experimental monopitch tire and a production passenger car tire - are evaluated on a smooth asphalt pavement at 58 km/hr. From the measured complex pressure, acoustic intensity is reconstructed on three planes surrounding the tire using modified NAH procedures. Additionally, sound power levels are presented in tabulated and spectra forms. Tire noise generating mechanisms are inferred based on the results.
Technical Paper

Transmission Oil Degradation Warning Systems and Computing in Agricultural Tractors

2000-06-19
2000-01-1873
This communication examines three strategies of predictive lubricant monitoring and replacement, used for farm tractors or similar vehicles. These strategies optimise the draining periodicity. They are the off-line follow-up, the sensors follow-up and the analytical model follow-up. The implementation of the suggested analytical model will be discussed, on the basis of field collected data (on a series of tractors, either customer's or on loan). Regular oil samples, and significant ones carried out at the end of the study, were taken and analysed in order to predict the evolution of the lubricant characteristics. Extensions to the experimental study were carried out at the end of this work. They are discussed in the paper (FZG gear scuffing, 4 ball wear and EP…).
Technical Paper

Verification of Heavy Truck EBS and ABS Using MatrixX Hardware in the Loop Tools

1999-11-15
1999-01-3713
The development of advanced ABS, EBS, and vehicle dynamics control systems requires significant resources and testing. Even in the most controlled environment, on-track vehicle tests are not repeatable. A heavy vehicle model combined with pneumatic brake hardware connected to actual brake system controllers creates a powerful engineering tool. This tool is useful for control system development, electro-mechanical actuator development, and brake system development. An existing heavy vehicle model is modified to interact with the realtime simulation hardware and the pneumatic brake system hardware. Data from several hardware in the loop simulations are presented.
Technical Paper

Improved Heavy Vehicle Wheel Dynamics Model Using MATLAB/SIMULINK

1999-11-15
1999-01-3707
The accuracy of existing rotational wheel dynamics models has been found to be insufficient for heavy vehicle Antilock Braking System (ABS) and Electropneumatic Braking System (EBS) simulation, specifically when wheelspeeds are at or near zero but the vehicle speed is not. Control strategies specific to ABS and EBS, the low frequency response of pneumatic actuation, and the practice of using fewer modulators than braked wheels require that a vehicle model be able to handle lockedwheel scenarios accurately. Commercially available models have been found unsatisfactory in this regard, and technical literature has not been found to address this issue.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Analysis of Commercial Vehicle Air Dryer Efficiency

1999-11-15
1999-01-3774
The measurement of pressure dew point is a well-known method of describing air quality, however this value seldom assists commercial vehicle OEM’s and operators in establishing specific air drying requirements for their vehicles. This paper describes the method and examines the results of using the dryer capacity method specified in SAE document J2384, section 5.2, for determining air dryer performance, and compares the results of various air-drying techniques and the impact on vehicle system design to give the most efficient solution. The paper further goes on to discuss how the drying capacity can also be influenced by the design of the air dryer to meet a wide range of vehicle applications both in Europe and North America. Since J2384 excludes continuous flow air dryers from the scope of the document, they will likewise be excluded from discussion here.
Technical Paper

Intelligent DC Power Management System

1999-11-15
1999-01-3749
Most heavy-duty vehicles including trucks, tractors, buses, ambulances, refrigerated trailers, passenger vehicles, electric vehicles and boats have high amp Direct Current systems. Unlike the majority of components and systems in such vehicles, DC electrical systems have undergone very few major improvements in recent years. The Intelligent Power Management System discussed in this paper can offer significant improvements in the DC power management of such vehicles. The primary benefits of this system include: improved reliability of all electrical components, early warning of impending failures, extended service life, optimized generation, storage and use of power, and reduced maintenance cost and vehicle downtime. This paper will describe the Intelligent Power Management System, its design, applications and benefits.
Technical Paper

How Diagnostics Contribute to Vehicle Productivity and Driver Retention

1999-11-15
1999-01-3751
This paper begins with an outline of the cost structure of operating a commercial vehicle. The focus is on maintenance costs and how diagnostics and prognostics can lower costs. The paper then describes a link between vehicle productivity, driver productivity and driver satisfaction. Examples of onboard and offboard diagnostic systems will be used to illustrate how users create a vehicle that is “the best place to work” for drivers.
Technical Paper

Optimal Mass and Geometric Parameters in Multi-Wheel Drive Trucks for Improved Transport and Fuel Efficiency

1999-11-15
1999-01-3733
To develop better performing vehicles, for ground transportation, it is necessary to improve the theory in vehicle dynamics for choosing suitable mass and geometric parameters for highway as well as for off road trucks. A new approach is required for choosing such optimal mass and geometric parameters. The present paper is devoted to this problem. A new method for synthesis of mass and geometric parameters is introduced here. The method allows us to synthesize the parameters in such way as to provide a vehicle with the best transport efficiency under various road surface conditions. Constraints such as limitations on these parameters, vehicle running modes, mass and geometric parameters are included in the model. Furthermore other constraints for vehicle running abilities which are dependent on mass and geometric parameters, as well as an algorithm for synthesizing mass and geometric parameters are also included in the paper for pre-optimization process.
Technical Paper

A Needs Assessment and Technology Evaluation for Roadside Identification of Commercial Vehicles

1999-11-15
1999-01-3726
This study was undertaken to identify methods of unique identification of commercial vehicles at the roadside for slow and high-speed electronic screening purposes. It is a comprehensive look at available and emerging technologies, focusing on the needs of the Federal Highway Administration’s Office of Motor Carrier and Highway Safety (OMCHS) and the States. The study included both a needs assessment and a technology evaluation. A preliminary list of 22 technologies was developed that appeared to have some applicability to the task of roadside identification of commercial vehicles. As the technology evaluation progressed, five of these technologies (optical character recognition, radio frequency identification, barcode, image capture, and voice recognition) emerged as demonstrating the greatest potential for roadside identification of commercial vehicles. These five technologies were evaluated in some detail, and recommendations were developed.
Technical Paper

Emissions Characteristics of Diesel Vehicles Equipped With Particulate Filters and Using Fuel Additive For Regeneration

2000-06-19
2000-01-1925
Four vehicles were chosen to cover a range of engine technologies. These vehicles were fitted with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) of differing technology. Three of the vehicles have been driven on the road using an additised fuel to demonstrate totally passive operation of the DPF. As part of this programme all three vehicles underwent regulated emissions testing to demonstrate that there was no deterioration in emissions during the programme. Additionally a light commercial vehicle was tested to demonstrate the effect on emissions of the combination of additised fuel and the DPF. The performance of the DPFs during on-road use has already been reported; this paper therefore concentrates on discussion of the results of the emissions testing.
Technical Paper

Characterization of New Fuel Qualities

2000-06-19
2000-01-2009
Many standardized tests for evaluating fuel properties have originally been designed for screening straight-run hydrocarbon products. In the case of fuels blended with new components or treated with additives, the traditional test methods may give misleading results. The objective of the work was to evaluate the correlation between the results of standardized testing and of the real-life serviceability of new diesel fuel qualities. Combustion properties, properties affecting exhaust emissions, low-temperature performance and diesel fuel lubricity were studied. The test fuel matrix comprised of typical conventional hydrocarbon diesel fuels, low-emission hydrocarbon fuels, rapeseed and tall oil esters and ethanol-blended diesel fuels. The base fuels were blended with a cetane improver additive and some fuels also with a cold flow improver additive. Combustion and emission tests were carried out with a heavy-duty bus engine and a diesel passenger car.
Technical Paper

Performance of an Advanced Synthetic Diesel Engine Oil

2000-06-19
2000-01-1993
This paper describes the performance of a synthetic diesel engine oil formulated to satisfy the most demanding lubrication requirements of modern heavy-duty diesel engines designed to meet North American and European emission regulations. The combination of an advanced fully synthetic base stock system and a customized additive system has resulted in an SAE 5W-40 oil with unique performance characteristics which include exceptional low and high temperature properties, excellent engine performance in laboratory and field tests, and an independently-documented, measurable fuel economy benefit relative to conventional mineral-based multigrade diesel engine oils. In addition to the cold starting and low volatility benefits derived from the synthetic base stocks, this technology has demonstrated outstanding engine performance in the areas of soot dispersancy, wear protection, engine cleanliness, and oil consumption control.
Technical Paper

Scenario Analysis of Hybrid Class 3-7 Heavy Vehicles

2000-03-06
2000-01-0989
The effects of hybridization on heavy-duty vehicles are not well understood. Heavy vehicles represent a broader range of applications than light-duty vehicles, resulting in a wide variety of chassis and engine combinations, as well as diverse driving conditions. Thus, the strategies, incremental costs, and energy/emission benefits associated with hybridizing heavy vehicles could differ significantly from those for passenger cars. Using a modal energy and emissions model, we quantify the potential energy savings of hybridizing commercial Class 3-7 heavy vehicles, analyze hybrid configuration scenarios, and estimate the associated investment cost and payback time.
Technical Paper

Cooling System Optimization for Euro4 - EPA/02 Heavy Duty Trucks

2000-03-06
2000-01-0964
Euro4 and EPA/02 emission regulations for the European and North American Heavy Duty truck market will require development of high efficiency, low pollution diesel engines. Informations received from main engine, truck manufacturers and literature surveys performed during the past two years shows that several technical solutions are being evaluated in order to reach the required emission levels. These technical solutions can be divided into 3 main groups: 1 Further optimization of fuel combustion including: increase of air to fuel ratio, further retardation of fuel injection timing. 2 Cooled EGR including: high recycled exhaust gas ratios, short EGR loop, compressed and aftercooled EGR. 3 Exhaust gas aftertreatment including: de-NOx catalysts, particle traps, particle afterburning. Different technical solutions will have different impacts on the heat rejection requirements and consequently on the layout and costs of the future cooling systems.
Technical Paper

Applying Construction Automation Research to Extraterrestrial Building Projects

2000-07-10
2000-01-2465
In this paper, the authors give a brief overview of past construction automation research, including practical applications, and report on current efforts which attempt to increase efficiency, flexibility, autonomy, and architectural quality into the automated erection of habitable spaces. Current research includes genetic programming-enhanced design, the use of shape grammars for automatic layout of parametric spaces, the use of kit-of-parts concepts for quantified assembly, and concepts for efficient packing and shipping of building components and construction robots for automated deployment onsite. The paper concludes with a discussion of possibilities for applying terrestrial automated construction research and design concepts to building processes in hostile environments.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Methods to Investigate Cooling Air Flow in the Construction Machinery's Engine Compartment

2000-09-11
2000-01-2577
This paper describes 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis to estimate the air flow in the construction machinery's engine compartment and accompanying measurements. As the computational grid, tetrahedral cells with rotating reference frame fixed to the fan were used. In the measurement, the single yawed hot wire rotation method was used to measure the 3-dimensional velocity vectors. As a result, the measured values correspond well to the computational results.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Approach Analyzing Random Motion Events Between a Machine and its Operator

2000-06-06
2000-01-2160
This paper presents an approach for representing and analyzing random motions and hazardous events in a simulated three-dimensional workplace, providing designers and analysts with a new technique for evaluating operator-machine interaction hazards in virtual environments. Technical data in this paper is based upon a project striving to reduce workers’ risks from being hit by underground mining machinery in a confined space. The project’s methodology includes human factors design considerations, ergonomic modeling and simulation tools, laboratory validation, and collaboration with a mining equipment manufacturer. Hazardous conditions can be analyzed in virtual environments using collision detection. By simulating an operator’s random behavior and machine’s appendage velocity, researchers can accurately identify hazards, and use that information to form safe design parameters for mining equipment.
Technical Paper

Emission Control Research to Enable Fuel Efficiency: Department of Energy Heavy Vehicle Technologies

2000-06-19
2000-01-2198
The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies supports research to enable high-efficiency diesel engines to meet future emissions regulations, thus clearing the way for their use in light trucks as well as continuing as the most efficient powerplant for freight-haulers. Compliance with Tier 2 rules and expected heavy duty engine standards will require effective exhaust emission controls (aftertreatment) for diesels in these applications. DOE laboratories are working with industry to improve emission control technologies in projects ranging from application of new diagnostics for elucidating key mechanisms, to development and tests of prototype devices. This paper provides an overview of these R&D efforts, with examples of key findings and developments.
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