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Technical Paper

The Use of Chemiluminescence for the Ranking of Lubricants in Terms of Oxidation Stability

In this study, a chemiluminescence apparatus (CL), ATLAS CL–400, was employed to measure the oxidation induction time (OIT) of various types of lubricants. Results of OIT obtained for base oils and industrial oils were compared to that obtained from standardized methods requiring larger expenditures of sample and/or analysis time. Some exploratory tests were also run on engine oils having increased expected performance. The technique was found to be very good for the ranking of lubricants since the relative oxidation stability of the products studied has been successfully evaluated by chemiluminescence (CL). This method was shown to be a good tool for oil formulation optimization.
Technical Paper

Mapping J1939 Parameter to CANopen Object Dictionary

J1939-based networks are used in most of the in-vehicle networks in trucks and buses and in some off-road vehicles. In addition, some off-highway vehicles such as agriculture and forestry machines and military vehicles are equipped with J1939-based networks. Because in Europe, many of the super-construction manufacturers like to use off-the-shelf, price-competitive devices originally developed for other applications fields, they like to buy CANopen-based modules. CANopen is a standardized CAN-based application layer and profile specification. In order to standardize the gateway functionality, a CANopen device profile for J1939 truck gateway is introduced.
Technical Paper

Future trends in technical and strategical relationships among OEMs and suppliers~Reshaping the automotive industry

Maturing markets, increasing price competition and the need for innovation have triggered continuous change in the relationship between automotive manufacturers and their suppliers over the past years. The restructuring of the industry was specially fueled by an increasing trend towards outsourcing of modulus and systems. Roland Berger & Partners International Management Consultants and Gelsenkirchen University of Applied Sciences conducted a study to identify the major trends in the automotive manufacturer (OEM) and supplier industry over the next 5 to 10 years. The study is based on 70 expert interviews with companies based in Europe, Japan and USA. Automotive market growth in the next decade will mainly come from the emerging markets of Eastern Europe, South America, China and Southeast Asia, while the "traditional" triad markets are expected to stagnate long-term. The concentration process among automobile manufacturers will lead to some eight independent OEMs in 2010.
Technical Paper

CPJazz – A Software Framework for Vehicle Systems Integration and Wireless Connectivity

Integration of new technology into vehicles continues at a rapid pace. New technology includes not only deeply embedded devices for vehicle systems management but also operator interfaces such as navigation systems, voice-recognition/text-to-speech interfaces and integration of consumer electronic appliances such as the Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). Standardization efforts have attempted to bring these technologies together through common buses, but because these devices have different capabilities and requirements of their own this is most likely impossible. The CPJazz framework was designed to provide integration of disparate devices and protocols through a dynamic and scalable component-like architecture. In this paper the capabilities and services provided by CPJazz for vehicle-based software integrators will be discussed as well as the identification of key scenarios that demonstrate its contributions to the vehicle and wireless environment.
Technical Paper

Standardization of Digger Derrick Capacity Ratings

Utility digger derricks are usually classified by their capacity rating with the booms fully retracted and fully elevated. This is not a practical working position. A more meaningful comparison of useful lifting capacities can be made when the rating classification is the load which can be lifted by the digger derrick lift cylinder at a ten foot load radius. Lifting capacities at lower boom angles are also important for digger derrick applications.
Technical Paper

Front Wheel Drive Vehicle Crashworthiness

An analysis is carried out on the collision behaviour of front engine/front drive (FWD) cars in comparison with the other main types such as: - front engine/rear drive (FE/RD) - rear engine/rear drive (RE/RD) An evaluation is made of the results of standardized collision tests, integrated with non-standardized tests with particular devices. The parameters considered are those typical defining the deformation law and the forces developed during the collision. Special attention is paid to the modes of structural absorption of energy, the influence of car weight and collision velocity.
Technical Paper

European Gasoline Engine Lubricant Performance Tests

The Coordinating European Council for the Development of Performance Tests for Lubricants and Engine Fuels (CEC) was founded 20 years ago with primary objective of developing simple and cheap standardized performance tests in European equipment in order to avoid the proliferation of in-house test procedures. This paper describes the changing emphasis on CEC terms of reference over the years and quotes examples of specific European tests which have become well established and are being used by oil and additive companies, vehicle manufacturers and users. The European engine lubricant environment is described and the interaction between the industries and standardizing bodies involved is highlighted. The CEC is endeavouring to meet the challenge of providing appropriate performance tests to the industries, requiring flexibility and close cooperation, particularly at a time when the evolution of engine designs and usage is relatively rapid.
Technical Paper

Modification of CFR Test Engine Unit to Determine Octane Numbers of Pure Alcohols and Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

The CFR test engine unit was modified by the use of a variable fuel needle jet, instead of the carburetor main jet of standard size (ASTM research and motor method), as well as by an additional heating system for the air/fuel mixture pre-heating device (ASTM motor method). This enables octane ratings of pure alcohols and gasoline-alcohol blends without changing engine operating conditions as specified by ASTM. The applicability of the newly developed supplementary devices was verified and found appropriate by the members of a FAM Task Group, organized within the German Institute for Standardization (DIN).
Technical Paper

Body Making Practice in Indonesia

This paper tries to inform the audience/reader on automotive body making practices in Indonesia, which may differ from those found in well developed countries. Short of capital and production volume, but with skilled handicraftmen abound, most body builders in Indonesia find their positions to be between machine intensive and labor intensive ones. Low buying power versus fanciful demands on means of transportation appearance often force body builders to compromise on some safety matters. Finding compromises leads one to believe that standardization may well be a forgotten thing, but IATO (the Indonesian Society of Automotive Engineers) together with the Government, is aiming at guiding the automotive industry to a more rationalized activity by adopting standards that are suited to Indonesia’s conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of the Motor Vehicle Industry in Indonesia

Materials presented in the paper deal with the problem of the automotive industrialization in Indonesia and the factors affecting its process, within the last ten years. The main engineering problem is that of the automotive components industry and the standardization of components. The author expects that the engineers of the international manufacturers exporting motor vehicles to Indonesia, will play an important role in contribution to solve the problems which in turn will enchance mutual cooperation.
Technical Paper

Collision Deformation Classification for Trucks

The Truck Deformation Classification - SAE J1301 - is a research tool used to describe collision contact damage sustained by large truck units. Damage patterns are described in an abbreviated seven digit coded format. Standardization of the reporting format and the complete descriptions provided by the code structure allow the evaluation of damage configurations for single accidents and mass accident data. This paper describes the development phases leading to publication of SAE J1301, the coding logic associated with the latter document, and the results of initial field application efforts.
Technical Paper

Improving the Method of Hydrocarbon Analysis

Measurements of hydrocarbon compounds in automotive exhaust gas with the current instrumentation are not accurate. Systematic errors up to 20 per cent can be observed. The pertinent regulations, furthermore, contain insufficient specifications of the instruments. A research project aimed at a definition of standardized data, to decrease the measuring errors of hydrocarbon analyzers by one order of magnitude. By detailed investigations of the functional parts and of the working parameters of the instruments the flame ionisation detectors were to be improved. The systematic errors caused by hydrocarbon structures or by a different oxygen content of the gas sample could be reduced to approximately two per cent on a prototype analyzer. Standardized data were derived for future legislation and future development of instruments.
Technical Paper

Development of open laboratory automation system

We urgently need to develop the next generation of automotive technology to support energy conservation and the global environment. For this we need an advancement of the Laboratory Automation System (LAS). However, restructuring the hardware and software of the LAS requires enormous amounts of time and costs. To solve the problems of the LAS development, we formed a user-vendor working group, which then established the common rules of LAS and IMACS (Integrated Measurement And Control System). IMACS are software-centered rules, characterized by the stratification of LAS and the interface called software parts. So far, we have integrated IMACS into five engineering fields. A total of 11 testing machine vendors participated in the development. We manufactured about 350 software parts and made their specifications openly available. As the next step, we are collecting software parts by deleting redundant functions.
Technical Paper

Software Development for Multiple OEMs Using Tool Configured Middleware for CAN Communication

Years ago car manufacturers started using reusable software components for the development of ECU applications. As communication between ECUs is not a competitive advantage, there has been a lot of standardization efforts, especially in Europe. Whereas the standards for Operating Systems and Network Managements are widely accepted and used, all major OEMs created their own versions of Communication Modules, which presents a major roadblock for OEM independent ECU development. We show how the OEM specifics can be hidden by using a tool configured middleware.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Assess the Accuracy of Service Timing Devices for Injection Pumps of Diesel Engines

The correct timing of the diesel injection pump on engine is of major importance for all functions of the engine and for its exhaust emissions, during production pass off as well as in the field. Within the diesel service workshops a variety of devices exist to test the timing of the injection pump on engine. Most of them operate by clamp-on transducer being fitted to the injection pipe. A large uncertainty exists concerning the accuracy of such timing systems. Most diesel engine manufacturers do not have confidence in the timing devices capability and, therefore, do not recommend their usage. A working group within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted a method for the validation of these measurement systems, which usually is used to judge the capability of measurement gauges for industrial production processes.
Technical Paper

Beyond APQP, A Simplified Integrated Project Management System for Automotive Suppliers

The relationship between automotive companies and suppliers is changing. The suppliers are required to demonstrate and provide increased responsibility for the design, development, prototyping and final production of parts. The supplier is asked to do more project management with extensive coordination, sourcing, qualifications and all at lower costs. Suppliers need to demonstrate their ability to perform all these tasks on time, on budget, and with high quality successful launches. However, they are more diversified, have remote location of plants, and multiple customers. There is a great need for a standardized simplified process that will work across all product lines and assure operations are profitable. A simplified standardized project/program management system was developed to specifically focus on the automotive sector.
Technical Paper

Large Scale Application of J-1939 CAN

This paper provides a roadmap for engineers wanting to apply SAE J-1939 to applications requiring high input/output counts and a high number of nodes. The differences of the various SAE “J” specifications for CAN will be discussed. There are brief descriptions of some of the terms and standards involved. Coverage of the design parameters and decisions that have to be made to develop a survivable system will be outlined. The decision process on the use of “Proprietary” and “Registered J-1939 is analyzed. Methods of achieving high flexibility as well as the future directions of J-1939 and typical applications are addressed in relation to engineering flexibility, product standardization, parts rationalization, service, and customer convenience.
Technical Paper

Standardized Assembly Process Planning Based on the Toyota Production System

Based on the principles of the renown Toyota Production System, a new planning approach has been applied to a product development project at Mercedes-Benz do Brasil, Sao Paulo. The key elements are Master Process Sheets, which document assembly operations as agreed standard operations and hence assure continuously high, repeatable quality. Master Process Sheets visualize the assembly operations using explosion drawings and provide a much higher degree of understanding and information accessibility to production workers compared to earlier main-frame based process planning systems.