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Technical Paper

X-by-Wire: Opportunities, Challenges and Trends

2003-03-03
2003-01-0113
This paper will outline the results of a study performed to analyze the market introduction of x-by-wire applications in the context of weak global industry environment, technological and legislative challenges, standardization issues and end customer benefits. This paper attempts to provide a bird-view on influence factors and impacts for the x-by-wire market, including e.g. the end customer's acceptance and legal environment driving further development in specific areas. Further, major driving forces on semiconductor/component level will be outlined regarding e.g. pin-count, computation performance and heat dissipation, but also possible scenarios and solutions towards safe and efficient system design and partitioning.
Technical Paper

Virtual Prototypes as Part of the Design Flow of Highly Complex ECUs

2005-04-11
2005-01-1342
Automotive powertrain and safety systems under design today are highly complex, incorporating more than one CPU core, running with more than 100 MHz and consisting of several 10 million transistors. Software complexity increases similarly making new methodologies and tools mandatory to manage the overall system. The use of accurate virtual prototypes improves the quality of systems with respect to system architecture design and software development. This approach is demonstrated with the example of the PCP/GPTA subsystem for Infineon's AUDO-NG powertrain controllers.
Technical Paper

Timing Correctness in Safety-Related Automotive Software

2011-04-12
2011-01-0449
Automotive applications classed as safety-related or safety-critical are now important differentiating technologies in the automotive industry. The emergence of safety standard ISO 26262 underlines the increasing importance of safety in automotive software. As well as functional requirements, hard real-time requirements are of crucial importance to safety-related software as there is a need to prove that the system functionality is fulfilled, even in worst-case scenarios. Measurement-based WCET (Worst-Case Execution Time) analysis combines on-target timing measurements with static analysis of program structure to calculate predicted worst-case paths and times. This is in contrast to traditional end-to-end timing measurements, which give no confidence that the worst-case path is actually tested and no insight into the location of any timing problems that do emerge.
Technical Paper

Timing Analysis and Tracing Concepts for ECU Development

2014-04-01
2014-01-0190
Integration scenarios for ECU software become more complicated, as more constraints with regards to timing, safety and security need to be considered. Multi-core microcontrollers offer even more hardware potential for integration scenarios. To tackle the complexity, more and more model based approaches are used. Understanding the interaction between the different software components, not only from a functional but also from a timing view, is a key success factor for high integration scenarios. In particular for multi-core systems, an amazing amount of timing data can be generated. Usually a multi-core system handles more software functionality than a single-core system. Furthermore, there may be timing interference on the multicore systems, due to the shared usage of buses, memory banks or other hardware resources.
Technical Paper

The Low Level Driver Design to Improve Dwell Timing of Engine Management System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1621
In Engine Management System, more accurate control is required to improve engine performance. Especially generating the precise ignition signal has a direct effect on better engine performance. In the beginning of this paper, a basic software structure to synchronize the engine crank signal and generate ignition signals will be explained. Several cases which can generate dwell timing error will be introduced based on this software structure. In addition, each impact level for each error case will be described. For cases of major error, compensation ways will be proposed in order to obtain more accurate dwell timing. The compensation ways by both microcontroller hardware and user software will be explained in detail. In conclusion, this paper will show the accuracy of ignition signal which implements proposed compensation ways that can be improved as compared to conventional ignition signal.
Technical Paper

The Challenges of Next Generation Automotive Benchmarks

2007-04-16
2007-01-0512
More than ever, microcontroller performance in cars has a direct impact on the driving experience, on compliance with improved safety, ever-stricter emissions regulations, and on fuel economy. The simple microcontrollers formerly used in automobiles are now being replaced by powerful number-crunchers whose performance can no longer be measured in MIPS. Instead, their effectiveness is based on a coherent partitioning between analog and digital, hardware and software, tools and methodology. To make an informed choice among the available devices, what the designer needs are benchmarks that are specific to automotive applications, and which provide a realistic representation of how the device will perform in the automotive environment. This presentation will explore the role of new benchmarks in the development of complex automotive applications.
Journal Article

The Challenges of Devising Next Generation Automotive Benchmarks

2008-04-14
2008-01-0382
More than ever, microcontroller performance in cars has a direct impact on the driving experience, on compliance with improved safety, ever-stricter emissions regulations, and on fuel economy. The simple microcontrollers formerly used in automobiles are now being replaced by powerful number-crunchers with incredible levels of peripheral integration. As a result, performance can no longer be measured in MIPS (Millions of Instructions Per Second). A microcontroller's effectiveness is based on coherent partitioning between analog and digital, hardware and software, tools and methodology. To make an informed choice among the available devices, the designer needs benchmarks that are specific to automotive applications, and which provide a realistic representation of how the device will perform in the automotive environment.
Technical Paper

TTCAN from Applications to Products in Automotive Systems

2003-03-03
2003-01-0114
This paper outlines the results of a study performed to analyze the mission of TTCAN from applications to products for automotive systems. As commonly acknowledged communication is one of the key elements for future and even present systems such as an automobile. A dramatically increasing number of busses and gateways even in low- to midrange vehicles is putting significant burden upon the validation scenario as well as the cost. Accordingly, numerous new initiatives have been started worldwide in order to find solutions to this; some of them by the definition of enhanced or new protocols. This paper shall have a look particular on the new standard of TTCAN (time-triggered communication on CAN). This protocol is based on the CAN data link layer as specified in ISO 11898-1 and may use standardized CAN physical layers such as specified in ISO 11898-2 (high-speed transceiver) or in ISO 11898-3 (fault-tolerant low-speed transceiver).
Technical Paper

System-Level Partitioning Using Mission-Level Design Tool for Electronic Valve Application

2003-03-03
2003-01-0865
In defining innovative and cost-effective chip sets for future automotive applications, system architects need high-level tools that allow them to rapidly determine the best silicon partitioning for a given application in terms of system performance as well as cost. The tool needs to be flexible, modular, and swift such that the system designer can perform abstract simulation iterations quickly for various functional partitioning scenarios, without requiring excessive computer resources. The tool must also be portable and adaptable to provide a simulation environment suitable to systems- or car-manufacturers for in-depth applications simulation and architecture assessment. The semiconductor component definition process using such a “mission-level” design tool for the automotive application electronic valve will be demonstrated. Methods for the analysis of electronic valve control system architectures using mission-level simulation will be developed.
Video

Supplier Discussions - 2012

2012-03-29
Seven different suppliers will discuss their latest technologies. Panelist Jon Bereisa, Auto Lectrification LLC John Burgers, Dana Canada Corporation Derek De Bono, Valeo Dusan Graovac, Infineon Technologies AG Ronald P. Krupitzer, American Iron and Steel Institute Timothy J. Lawler, Bosch Corp. Ian M. Sharp, Flybrid Systems LLP
Technical Paper

Spontaneous Transistor Failures in Automotive Power Electronics

2014-04-01
2014-01-0228
The amount of electronics in vehicles is increasing, so is the amount of power electronics circuits, like inverters for electric motor drives or dc/dc converters. The muscles of these circuits are power transistors like MOSFETs and IGBTs - in each circuit are several of them. While MOSFETs and IGBTs have advanced over the years in terms of their performance, their wide product spectrum and feature spectrum as well as cost, they are still not unbreakable, but semiconductors which are more sensitive to electrical or thermal overstress than, a relay for instance. Especially electrical overstress, like overvoltage or over current, may damage a power transistor within a short time frame. Hence, electrical overstress must be avoided when designing the power electronics circuit. However, even a power transistor in a carefully designed power electronics circuit, may still be exposed to over current, short circuit, over voltage, over temperature and so forth.
Technical Paper

Smart Power Supply Concept for 32-Bit Microcontroller Applications

2000-03-06
2000-01-1242
The increasing complexity of automotive electronic systems can only be managed by a higher integration of the modules and a high reliability of the individual electronic devices. That means, the number of electronic components on board will decrease and their complexity will increase. This paper describes how to meet the requirements for the power supply of a 32-bit microcontroller based system in an automotive environment.
Journal Article

Smart Power Semiconductors - Repetitive Short Circuit Operation

2008-04-14
2008-01-0719
In addition to basic switching functionality, smart power switches mainly provide diagnostic and protection functions, e.g. for short circuits to the load, which makes it all the more surprising that short circuit protected smart switches have been used for years in automotive applications without there being a precise definition of a short circuit. This article describes what Infineon has done to fill this gap. It was first necessary to define the kind of short circuits likely to occur in automotive applications and to specify the use and operating points of the smart switches. The next logical step was the standardization of the test circuit and application conditions in the AEC (Automotive Electronics Council) to allow an industry-wide comparison of the test results.
Technical Paper

Smart IGBT's for Advanced Distributed Ignition Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-0518
Driven by factors like consumption, power output per liter, comfort and more stringent exhaust gas standards the powertain control area, has developed rapidly in the last decades. This trend has also brought with it many innovations in the ignition application. Today we can see a trend to Pencil-coil or Plug-top-coil ignition systems. The next step in system partitioning is to remove the power driver from the ECU and place it directly in/on the coil body. The advantages of the new partitioning - e.g. no high voltage wires, reduced power dissipation on the ECU - are paid with different, mainly tougher requirements for the electronic components. By using specialized technologies for the different functions - IGBT for switching the power, SPT for protection, supply and diagnostics - in chip-on-chip technology all required functions for a decentralized ignition system can be realized in a TO220/ TO263 package.
Technical Paper

Smart IGBT for Advanced Ignition Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-1220
Increasing fuel costs and emission regulations force the car manufacturers to develop powerful but efficient engines. The 3-liter car (3-liter/100 km fuel consumption → 80 miles/gallon) is one of the slogans. To fulfill these requirements a fully electronic controlled Engine Management is necessary. Carburetor systems are replaced by fuel injection systems. Direct injection for Diesel as well as for gasoline engines is the clear trend for the future. The mechanical throttle systems, used for a long time will not fit to the requirements of direct injection. A DC motor for electronic throttle control in conjunction with λ regulation and exhaust gas recirculation are the key elements for low emission cars. Also the automotive ignition system is in a process of change today.
Technical Paper

Smart 24 V Battery Switch for a Reliable Redundant Power Supply in Commercial, Construction, and Agriculture Vehicles (CAV)

2019-10-11
2019-01-5078
For highly automated driving, commercial vehicles require an Electric/Electronic (E/E) architecture, which - in addition to sensor fusion - ensures safety-critical processes such as steering and braking at all times. Among other things, a redundant 24 V supply with corresponding disconnection is required. The battery switch is a key component. Commercial, construction, and agricultural vehicles (CAV) need to operate at the highest possible availability and the lowest possible cost of ownership. This is why automated and autonomous driving has the potential to revolutionize the CAV sector. Driverless machines can be operated around the clock and almost non-stop. Platooning allows automated, interconnected trucks to drive in a convoy and very close to each other. Platooning saves fuel.
Technical Paper

Single-Edge Nibble Transmission: Challenges and Evolutions

2009-04-20
2009-01-0125
Single Edge Nibble Transmission (SENT) is a promising low-cost solution for communication between off-ECU sensors and a microcontroller. First, this paper analyses the advantages of digital sensors with a special focus on position sensors. The possible integration of SENT in other application fields (such as pressure sensors) is also discussed. Secondly, it describes possible solutions for handling SENT communication on microcontrollers and it gives practical examples based on Infineon's TriCore and XC2000 families. It discusses the constraints and limitations on software level and how they could be solved by dedicated hardware implementations. Finally, this paper presents the Short PWM Code (SPC) protocol, which is a further extension of the SENT protocol. SPC aims at increasing the performance of the communication link and reducing system costs at the same time. By allowing bidirectional communication, SPC opens the way to new system relevant functionalities.
Technical Paper

Sensor Signal Delivery

2005-04-11
2005-01-0043
The signal delivery and quality of sensor data is of growing importance for modern automotive control applications. Sensors tend to be calibrated subsystems that are designed to stay in a defined tolerance and thus can easily be modeled. Compared to this deterministic behavior the transmission channel is time variant due to EMC and aging of contacts for example. The use of analog signaling, which is the actual state of realization in many cases, is sensitive to the time variant effects mentioned before. This time variance is hard to consider for the control system development. In this paper we will analyze the role of the sensor in the signal supply chain and discuss approaches for digital sensor-ECU communication and their potential to establish a link, which allows neglecting low level effects of the channel.
Technical Paper

Seamless Solution for Electronic Power Steering

2006-04-03
2006-01-0593
The number of safety critical automotive applications employing high current brushless motors continues to increase (Steering, Braking, and Transmission etc.). There are many benefits when moving from traditional solutions to electrically actuated solutions. Some of these benefits can include increased fuel economy, simplified vehicle installation and packaging, increased feature set, improved safety and/or convenience, simplified unit assembly and modular testability prior as well as during vehicle manufacturing. The trend to implement brushless motors in these applications (which require electronically controlled commutation) has also brought with it the need for powerful inverters, which primarily consist of Power MOSFETs and MOSFET Driver ICs. This paper reviews the challenges associated with the design of safety critical electronic systems which combine sensing, control and actuation.
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