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Technical Paper

Tribological and Metallurgical Properties of Nitrided AISI 4340 Steel

2014-04-01
2014-01-0959
Nitridng usually improves wear resistance and can be accomplished using a gas or plasma method; it's necessary to find if there is any difference in surface roughness, wear and/or wear mechanism when choosing between methods for nitriding. In this study, Ball-on-disk wear test was compared on coupons nitrided with five different nitriding cycles that processed at temperatures of 500-570°C, with a processing time of 8 - 80 hrs. Different compound layer thicknesses were formed, (5-8μm), and a minimum of 0.38 mm case depth was produced. Nitrided samples were also compared to nitrocarburized and the nitrided coupons with a “0” compound layer in a ball-on-disk test. Few selected coupons were post-polished and wear test on ball-on-disk test was compared with the coupons without post polishing. Optical surface roughness using White Light Interferometry (WLIM) and metallurgical testing was performed.
Technical Paper

The Selection of Window in Spatial Phase Shift ESPI

2013-04-08
2013-01-1420
Shearography is a laser based optical method that is similar to holographic interferometry and ESPI. It is a full-field, non-contacting and non-destructive measurement method for the surface deformation. It overcomes some of the disadvantages of holography; it does not need a reference beam, so that it obtains vibration isolation and simplifies the setup. These advantages grant shearography the ability to be a practical measurement tool and it has already gotten many industrial acceptances for non-destructive testing The embedment of the phase shift technique improves dramatically the measuring sensitivity and accuracy of the shearography. It uses the piezoelectric as the carrier to generate a known phase gap and takes multiple images with the phase before and after the sample is loaded, so that the phase map is calculated. And for each pixel the phase is accurate. However, the disadvantage of the phase shift technique is the time consumption.
Technical Paper

The Research on Edge Tearing with Digital Image Correlation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0593
Material formability is a very important aspect in the automotive stamping, which must be tested for the success of manufacturing. One of the most important sheet metal formability parameters for the stamping is the edge tear-ability. In this paper, a novel test method has been present to test the aluminum sheet edge tear-ability with 3D digital image correlation (DIC) system. The newly developed test specimen and fixture design are also presented. In order to capture the edge deformation and strain, sample's edge surface has been sprayed with artificial speckle. A standard MTS tensile machine was used to record the tearing load and displacement. Through the data processing and evaluation of sequence image, testing results are found valid and reliable. The results show that the 3D DIC system with double CCD can effectively carry out sheet edge tear deformation. The edge tearing test method is found to be a simple, reliable, high precision, and able to provide useful results.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Edge Quality on Edge Stretching Limit for Aluminum Alloy

2016-04-05
2016-01-0416
This paper presents the measurement and analysis of the edge stretching limit of aluminum alloy using digital image correlation. The edge stretching limit, also known as the “edge thinning limit,” is the maximum thinning strain at a point of edge failure resulting from tension; which may be predisposed by edge quality. Edge fracture is a vital failure mode in sheet metal forming, however it is very difficult to measure. A previous study enabled the measurement of edge thinning strain by using advanced digital image correlation but it did not consider how the edge quality could affect the edge stretching limit of aluminum alloy. This paper continues to measure edge thinning strain by comparing polished to unpolished AA5754, thus determining the effect edge quality has on the edge stretching limit. To enable the measurement by optical method for a very long and thin sample, a notch is used to localize where edge failure occurs.
Technical Paper

Test of Inclined Double Beads on Aluminum Sheets

2018-04-03
2018-01-1221
Draw beads are widely used in the binder of a draw die for regulating the restraining force and control the draw-in of a metal blank. Different sheet materials and local panel geometry request different local draw bead configurations. Even the majority of draw bead is single draw bead, the alternative double draw bead does have its advantages, such as less bending damage may be brought to the sheet material and more bead geometry features available to work on. In this paper, to measure the pulling force when a piece of sheet metal passing through a draw bead on an inclined binder, the AA5XXX and AA6XXX materials were tested and its strain were measured with a digital image correlation (DIC) system. Five different types of double bead configurations were tested. The beads are installed in a Stretch-Bend-Draw-System (SBDS) test device. The clearance between a male and a female bead is 10% thicker than the sheet material. A tensile machine was used to record the pulling force.
Technical Paper

Tensile Test for Polymer Plastics with Extreme Large Elongation Using Quad-Camera Digital Image Correlation

2016-04-05
2016-01-0418
Polymer plastics are widely used in automotive light weight design. Tensile tests are generally used to obtain material stress-strain curves. Due to the natural of the plastic materials, it could be elongated more than several hundred percent of its original length before breaking. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Analysis is a precise, full field, optical measurement method. It has been accepted as a practical in-field testing method by the industry. However, with the traditional single-camera or dual-camera DIC system, it is nearly impossible to measure the extreme large strain. This paper introduces a unique experimental procedure for large elongation measurement. By utilization of quad-camera DIC system and data stitch technique, the strain history for plastic material under hundreds percent of elongation can be measured. With a quad-camera DIC system, the correlation was conducted between two adjacent cameras.
Journal Article

Study of the Motion of Floating Piston Pin against Pin Bore

2013-04-08
2013-01-1215
One of the major problems that the automotive industry faces is reducing friction to increase efficiency. Researchers have shown that 30% of the fuel energy was consumed to overcome the friction forces between the moving parts of any automobile, Holmberg et al. [1]. The interface of the piston pin and pin bore is one of the areas that generate high friction under severe working conditions of high temperature and lack of lubrication. In this research, experimental investigation and theoretical simulation have been carried out to analyze the motion of the floating pin against pin bore. In the experimental study, the focus was on analyzing the floating pin motion by using a bench test rig to simulate the floating pin motion in an internal combustion engine. A motion data acquisition system was developed to capture and record the pin motion. Thousands of images were recorded and later analyzed by a code written by MATLAB.
Technical Paper

Structural Vibration of an Engine Block and a Rotating Crankshaft Coupled Through Elastohydrodynamic Bearings

2003-05-05
2003-01-1724
A comprehensive formulation is presented for the dynamics of a rotating flexible crankshaft coupled with the dynamics of an engine block through a finite difference elastohydrodynamic main bearing lubrication algorithm. The coupling is based on detailed equilibrium conditions at the bearings. The component mode synthesis is employed for modeling the crankshaft and block dynamic behavior. A specialized algorithm for coupling the rigid and flexible body dynamics of the crankshaft within the framework of the component mode synthesis has been developed. A finite difference lubrication algorithm is used for computing the oil film elastohydrodynamic characteristics. A computationally accurate and efficient mapping algorithm has been developed for transferring information between a high - density computational grid for the elastohydrodynamic bearing solver and a low - density structural grid utilized in computing the crankshaft and block structural dynamic response.
Journal Article

Spatial Phase-Shift Digital Shearography for Out-of-Plane Deformation Measurement

2014-04-01
2014-01-0824
Measuring deformation under dynamic loading is still a key problem in the automobile industry. The first spatial phase-shift shearography system for relative deformation measurement is reported. Traditional temporal phase-shift technique-based shearography systems are capable of measuring relative deformation by using a reference object. However, due to its low acquisition rate, the existing temporal phase-shift shearography system can be only used under static loading situations. This paper introduces a digital shearography system which utilizes the spatial phase-shift technique to obtain an extremely high acquisition rate. The newly developed spatial phase-shift shearography system uses a Michelson-Interferometer as the shearing device. A high power laser at 532nm wavelength is used as the light source. A one mega pixels high speed CCD camera is used to record the speckle pattern interference.
Journal Article

Scuffing Test Rig for Piston Wrist Pin and Pin Bore

2015-04-14
2015-01-0680
In practice, the piston wrist pin is either fixed to the connecting rod or floats between the connecting rod and the piston. The tribological behavior of fixed wrist pins have been studied by several researchers, however there have been few studies done on the floating wrist pin. A new bench rig has been designed and constructed to investigate the tribological behavior between floating pins and pin bore bearings. The experiments were run using both fixed pins and floating pins under the same working conditions. It was found that for fixed pins there was severe damage on the pin bore in a very short time (5 minutes) and material transfer occurs between the wrist pin and pin bore; however, for the floating pin, even after a long testing time (60 minutes) there was minimal surface damage on either the pin bore or wrist pin.
Journal Article

Scanning Frequency Ranges of Harmonic Response for a Spot-Welded Copper-Aluminum Plate Using Finite Element Method

2011-04-12
2011-01-1076
In this paper, a finite element methodology is given in which finite element models of a three-weld Al-Cu plate is created with support and loading conditions emulating those seen in an optical lab. Harmonic response is sought for the models under the presumption that various defective welds are present. The numerical results are carefully examined to determine the guideline frequency range so the actual optical experiment can be carried out more efficiently.
Journal Article

Residual Stresses in As-Quenched Aluminum Castings

2008-04-14
2008-01-1425
A significant amount of residual stresses can be developed in aluminum castings during heat treatment. This paper reports an experimental study of the residual stress distributions in aluminum castings after solution treatment and water quench. The residual stresses in aluminum castings are measured using both optical and resistance strain rosettes. The optical strain rosette technique was recently developed in conjunction with ring-core cutting method for residual stress measurement. The measured residual stresses from optical and resistance strain rosettes are compared with the results of X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements. The advantages and disadvantages of various measurement methods are discussed.
Technical Paper

Research on the different Behavior of Edge Cracking Limit by Adopting the Laser Cutting Method

2019-04-02
2019-01-1264
The edge fracture occurs more frequently during the forming procedure by using the material with higher strength. To avoid the edge fracture that happens during the manufacturing, the edge cracking limit at different pre-strain level needs to be determined. The edge of the part under forming is conventionally manufactured by mechanical cutting, and the edge cracking limit under this circumstance is already heavily studied. In recent years, laser cutting is more applied in the automotive industry to cutting the edge due to the following advantages over mechanical cutting: easier work holding, higher precision, no wearing, smaller heat-affected zone, etc. The change cutting method could lead to a different behavior to the edge cracking limit at different pre-strain level. In this paper, the edge cracking limits of sets of pre-strained coupons with different pre-strain levels are tested. Half of them is cut by the conventional punch method, and the other half uses laser cutting.
Technical Paper

Research on Shear Test of New Style Automotive Structural Adhesive

2014-04-01
2014-01-0828
In this paper, Digital Image Correlation Method (DICM) is employed to measure the shear mechanical property of the new style automotive structural adhesive specimens and traditional spot welded specimens under quasi static uniaxial shear tensile test. This experiment adopts a non-contact measuring method to measure the strain of specimens. A CCD and a computer image processing system are used to capture and record the real-time surface images of the specimens before and after deformation. Digital correlation software is used to process the imagines before and after deformation to obtain the specimen's strain of the moment. And then both the force-displacement curve and the stress-strain curve during the tensile process could be obtained. The test and analysis results show that the new style structural adhesive specimens have a great advantage with the spot welded specimens. It provides experimental evidence for further improvement of this structural adhesive.
Technical Paper

Piston Secondary Dynamics Considering Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication

2007-04-16
2007-01-1251
An analytical method is presented in this paper for simulating piston secondary dynamics and piston-bore contact for an asymmetric half piston model including elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication at the bore-skirt interface. A piston EHD analysis is used based on a finite-difference formulation. The oil film is discretized using a two-dimensional mesh. For improved computational efficiency without loss of accuracy, the Reynolds’ equation is solved using a perturbation approach which utilizes an “influence zone” concept, and a successive over-relaxation solver. The analysis includes several important physical attributes such as bore distortion effects due to mechanical and thermal deformation, inertia loading and piston barrelity and ovality. A Newmark-Beta time integration scheme combined with a Newton-Raphson linearization, calculates the piston secondary motion.
Technical Paper

Nanometer Displacement Measurement Using High Magnification Diffraction Imaging

2005-04-11
2005-01-0898
This paper proposes a direct nanometer measurement method using the technique of high magnification diffraction imaging. The principles of employing both gratings and speckles are described, in which the illumination distances that generate high magnified and focused images are discussed along with demonstration test results. In addition, the potential extension to sub-nanometer displacement measurement is discussed.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Aluminum Edge Stretching Limit Using 3D Digital Image Correlation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0594
This paper introduces an industrial application of digital image correlation technique on the measurement of aluminum edge stretching limit. In this study, notch-shape aluminum coupons with three different pre-strain conditions are tested. The edge stretching is proceeded by standard MTS machine. A dual-camera 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is used for the full field measurement of strain distribution in the thickness direction. Selected air brush is utilized to form a random distributed speckle pattern on the edge of sheet metal. A pair of special optical lens systems are used to observe the small measurement edge area. From the test results, it demonstrate that refer to the notched coupon thickness, pre-tension does not affect the fracture limit; refer to the virgin sheet thickness, the average edge stretch thinning limits show a consistent increasing trend as the pre-stretch strain increased.
Technical Paper

Improving Material Property Measurement by Using Multi-Camera Digital Image Correlation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1428
In this work, a multi-camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is applied to measure the material properties of aluminum (5754) specimens. Such tests are usually done using 2D (one-camera) or 3D (two-camera) DIC systems. A multi-camera DIC system includes three or more cameras and inherits all the advantages of a conventional 3D DIC system (with two cameras) such as, full-field measurement, high accuracy and high speed. In addition, this system further improves the measured results by including redundant data. In this work, we will show the potential of this system to measure a variety of material properties at one time.
Technical Paper

Forming Limit Measurement Using a Multi-Sensor Digital Image Correlation System

2013-04-08
2013-01-1423
A multi-sensor Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system is employed to measure the deformation of metal specimens during tensile tests. The multi-sensor DIC system is capable of providing high quality contour and deformation data of a 3D object. Methodology and advantages of the multi-sensor DIC system is introduced. Tests have been done on steel and aluminum specimens to prove the performance of the system. With the help of the multi-sensor DIC system, we proposed our approaches to determine the forming limit based on shape change around the necking area instead of calculate the FLD based on the in-plane strains. With the employed system, all measurements are done post-deformation, no testing controlling mechanism, such as load force control or touching control, is required. The extracted data is analyzed and the result shows a possibility that we may be able to improve current technique for Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) measurement.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigations Into Free-Circular Upward-Impinging Oil-Jet Heat Transfer of Automotive Pistons

2017-03-28
2017-01-0625
The purpose of this research was to measure and correlate the area-average heat transfer coefficients for free, circular upward-impinging oil-jets onto two automotive pistons having different undercrown shapes and different diameters. For the piston heat transfer studies, two empirical area-average Nusselt number correlations were developed. One was based on the whole piston undercrown surface area with the Nusselt number based on the nozzle diameter, and the other was based on the oil-jet impingement area with the Nusselt number based on the oil-jet effective impingement diameter. The correlations can predict the 95% and 94% of the experimental measurements within 30% error, respectively. The first correlation is simpler to use and can be employed for cases in which the oil jet wets the whole piston undercrown. The latter may be more useful for larger pistons or higher Prandtl number conditions in which the oil jet wets only a portion of the undercrown.
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