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Technical Paper

Zero Dimensional Models for EGR Mass-Rate and EGR Unbalance Estimation in Diesel Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0070
A precise estimation of the recirculated exhaust gas rate and oxygen concentration as well as a predictive evaluation of the possible EGR unbalance among cylinders are of paramount importance, especially if non-conventional combustion modes, which require high EGR flow-rates, are implemented. In the present paper, starting from the equation related to convergent nozzles, the EGR mass flow-rate is modeled considering the pressure and the temperature upstream of the EGR control valve, as well as the pressure downstream of it. The restricted flow-area at the valve-seat passage and the discharge coefficient are carefully assessed as functions of the valve lift. Other models were fitted using parameters describing the engine working conditions as inputs, following a semi-physical and a purely statistical approach. The resulting models are then applied to estimate EGR rates to both conventional and non-conventional combustion conditions.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Driveability: Dynamic Analysis of Powertrain System Components

2016-04-05
2016-01-1124
The term driveability describes the driver's complex subjective perception of the interactions with the vehicle. One of them is associated to longitudinal acceleration aspects. A relevant contribution to the driveability optimization process is, nowadays, realized by means of track tests during which a considerable amount of driveline parameters are tuned in order to obtain a good compromise of longitudinal acceleration response. Unfortunately, this process is carried out at a development stage when a design iteration becomes too expensive. In addition, the actual trend of downsizing and supercharging the engines leads to higher vibrations that are transmitted to the vehicle. A large effort is therefore dedicated to develop, test and implement ignition strategies addressed to minimize the torque irregularities. Such strategies could penalize the engine maximum performance, efficiency and emissions. The introduction of the dual mass flywheel is beneficial to this end.
Journal Article

Use of an Innovative Predictive Heat Release Model Combined to a 1D Fluid-Dynamic Model for the Simulation of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0012
An innovative 0D predictive combustion model for the simulation of the HRR (heat release rate) in DI diesel engines was assessed and implemented in a 1D fluid-dynamic commercial code for the simulation of a Fiat heavy duty diesel engine equipped with a Variable Geometry Turbocharger system, in the frame of the CORE (CO2 reduction for long distance transport) Collaborative Project of the European Community, VII FP. The 0D combustion approach starts from the calculation of the injection rate profile on the basis of the injected fuel quantities and on the injection parameters, such as the start of injection and the energizing time, taking the injector opening and closure delays into account. The injection rate profile in turn allows the released chemical energy to be estimated. The approach assumes that HRR is proportional to the energy associated with the accumulated fuel mass in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Turbulence Spectrum Investigation in a DI Diesel Engine with a Reentrant Combustion Bowl and a Helical Inlet Port

1996-10-01
962019
The frequency spectral structure of turbulence spatial components was investigated in the cylinder of an automotive diesel engine with a high-squish reentrant in-piston bowl of the conical type and a helical inlet port. A sophisticated HWA technique using single- and dual-sensor probes was applied for instantaneous air velocity measurements along the injector axis at practical engine speeds, up to 3000 rpm, under motored conditions. The investigation was carried out for both cycle-resolved and conventional turbulence components, as were determined by different wire orientations, throughout the induction, the compression and the early stage of the expansion stroke. The anisotropy of turbulence spectral structure and its temporal evolution during the engine cycle were examined by evaluating the autospectral density functions and the time scales of each turbulence component in consecutive correlation crank-angle intervals.
Technical Paper

Time-Frequency Spectral Stucture of Turbulence in an Automotive Engine

1992-02-01
920153
The results of an experimental study on the statistical structure of turbulence in an automotive engine are reported, with specific reference to the time-frequency domains. Autocorrelation and autospectral density coefficients were evaluated in consecutive crank-angle intervals throughout the induction and compression strokes. Eulerian time scales were obtained on the analogy of both the micro and integral time scales of turbulence for stationary flows. The spatial distribution of the turbulence structure was investigated in the combustion chamber of a diesel engine with a shallow in-piston bowl and two tangential intake ducts. The study was carried out for different swirl flow conditions, produced by deactivating one intake duct and/or by changing the engine speed. The velocity data were acquired using an advanced HWA technique, under motored conditions.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Electric Exhaust Gas Turbocharging for HD Diesel Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-0437
The potential of an electric assisted turbocharger for a heavy-duty diesel engine has been analyzed in this work, in order to evaluate the turbo-lag reductions and the fuel consumption savings that could be obtained in an urban bus for different operating conditions. The aim of the research project was to replace the current variable geometry turbine with a fixed geometry turbine, connecting an electric machine which can be operated both as an electric motor and as an electric generator to the turbo shaft. The electric motor can be used to speed up the turbocharger during the acceleration transients and reduce the turbo-lag, while the generator can be used to recover the excess exhaust energy when the engine is operated near the rated speed, in order to produce electrical power that can be used to drive engine auxiliaries. In this way the engine efficiency can be improved and a kind of “electric turbocompounding” can be obtained.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Crankcase Clearance Volume on Two-Stroke S.I. Engine Performance

1999-09-28
1999-01-3331
The performance of two-stroke spark-ignition engines is greatly influenced by the scavenging process The variation of the crankcase clearance volume has here been investigated as a method for engine-load reduction. This method allows the reduction of the load without throttling or only by partial throttling with a theoretical increase of the engine efficiency. A comparison of two methods (air throttling and crankcase clearance volume variation) has therefore been carried out. The reduction of pumping work, due to the use of the variable crankcase clearance volume, has not always caused a consequent reduction of the specific fuel consumption. This is mainly due to deterioration of the scavenging process and to the occurrence of pre-ignition which occur above all at light loads.
Journal Article

The Effects of Neat Biodiesel Usage on Performance and Exhaust Emissions from a Small Displacement Passenger Car Diesel Engine

2010-05-05
2010-01-1515
The effects of using neat FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) in a modern small displacement passenger car diesel engine have been evaluated in this paper. In particular the effects on engine performance at full load with standard (i.e., without any special tuning) ECU calibration were analyzed, highlighting some issues in the low end torque due to the lower exhaust gas temperatures at the turbine inlet, which caused a remarkable decrease of the available boost, with a substantial decrease of the engine torque output, far beyond the expected engine derating due to the lower LHV of the fuel. However, further tests carried out after ECU recalibration, showed that the same torque levels measured under diesel operation can be obtained with neat biodiesel too, thus highlighting the potential for maintaining the same level of performance.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Post Injection Coupled with Extremely High Injection Pressure on Combustion Process and Emission Formation in an Off-Road Diesel Engine: A Numerical and Experimental Investigation

2019-09-09
2019-24-0092
In this paper, a numerical and experimental assessment of post injection potential for soot emissions mitigation in an off-road diesel engine is presented, with the aim of supporting hardware selection and engine calibration processes. As a case study, a prototype off-road 3.4 liters 4-cylinder diesel engine developed by Kohler Engines was selected. In order to explore the possibility to comply with Stage V emission standards without a dedicated aftertreatment for NOx, the engine was equipped with a low pressure cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), allowing high EGR rates (above 30%) even at high load. To enable the exploitation of such high EGR rates with acceptable soot penalties, a two-stage turbocharger and an extremely high-pressure fuel injection system (up to 3000 bar) were adopted. Moreover, post injections events were also exploited to further mitigate soot emissions with acceptable Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) penalties.
Technical Paper

The Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment (DEXA) Cluster: A Systematic Approach to Diesel Particulate Emission Control in Europe

2004-03-08
2004-01-0694
The DEXA Cluster consisted of three closely interlinked projects. In 2003 the DEXA Cluster concluded by demonstrating the successful development of critical technologies for Diesel exhaust particulate after-treatment, without adverse effects on NOx emissions and maintaining the fuel economy advantages of the Diesel engine well beyond the EURO IV (2000) emission standards horizon. In the present paper the most important results of the DEXA Cluster projects in the demonstration of advanced particulate control technologies, the development of a simulation toolkit for the design of diesel exhaust after-treatment systems and the development of novel particulate characterization methodologies, are presented. The motivation for the DEXA Cluster research was to increase the market competitiveness of diesel engine powertrains for passenger cars worldwide, and to accelerate the adoption of particulate control technology.
Technical Paper

Supercar Hybridization: A Synergic Path to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Improve Performance

2018-05-30
2018-37-0009
The trend towards powertrain electrification is expected to grow significantly in the next future also for super-cars. The aim of this paper is therefore to assess, through numerical simulation, the impact on both fuel economy and performance of different 48 Volt mild hybrid architectures for a high-performance sport car featuring a Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition (TDISI) engine. In particular the hybrid functionalities of both a P0 (Belt Alternator Starter - BAS) and a P2 (Flywheel Alternator Starter - FAS) architecture were investigated and optimized for this kind of application through a global optimization algorithm. The analysis pointed out CO2 emission reductions potential of about 6% and 25% on NEDC, 7% and 28% on WLTC for P0 and P2 respectively. From the performance perspective, a 10% reduction in the time-to-torque was highlighted for both architectures in a load step maneuver at 2000 RPM constant speed.
Journal Article

Steady-State and Transient Operations of a Euro VI 3.0L HD Diesel Engine with Innovative Model-Based and Pressure-Based Combustion Control Techniques

2017-03-28
2017-01-0695
In the present work, different combustion control strategies have been experimentally tested in a heavy-duty 3.0 L Euro VI diesel engine. In particular, closed-loop pressure-based and open-loop model-based techniques, able to perform a real-time control of the center of combustion (MFB50), have been compared with the standard map-based engine calibration in order to highlight their potentialities. In the pressure-based technique, the instantaneous measurement of in-cylinder pressure signal is performed by a pressure transducer, from which the MFB50 can be directly calculated and the start of the injection of the main pulse (SOImain) is set in a closed-loop control to reach the MFB50 target, while the model-based approach exploits a heat release rate predictive model to estimate the MFB50 value and sets the corresponding SOImain in an open-loop control. The experimental campaign involved both steady-state and transient tests.
Journal Article

Spray and Soot Formation Analysis by Means of a Quasi-Dimensional Multizone Model in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine under Euro 4 Operating Conditions

2015-09-06
2015-24-2416
An investigation has been carried out on the spray penetration and soot formation processes in a research diesel engine by means of a quasi-dimensional multizone combustion model. The model integrates a predictive non stationary 1D spray model developed by the Sandia National Laboratory, with a diagnostic multizone thermodynamic model, and is capable of predicting the spray formation, combustion and soot formation processes in the combustion chamber. The multizone model was used to analyze three operating conditions, i.e., a zero load point (BMEP = 0 bar at 1000 rpm), a medium load point (BMEP = 5 bar at 2000 rpm) and a medium-high load point (BMEP = 10 bar at 2000 rpm). These conditions were experimentally tested in an optical single cylinder engine with the combustion system configuration of a 2.0L Euro4 GM diesel engine for passenger car applications.
Technical Paper

Speed Dependence of Turbulence Properties in a High-Squish Automotive Engine Combustion System

1996-02-01
960268
The variation of turbulent flow quantities with engine speed has been investigated in the combustion chamber of an automotive diesel engine with a high-squish conical-type in-piston bowl and one helicoidal intake duct, at speeds covering the wide range of 600-3000 rpm, under motored conditions. The investigation had the main purpose of studying the engine speed effect on the structure of both cycle-resolved and conventional turbulence over the induction, the compression and the early stage of the expansion stroke. The low frequency component of the fluctuating motion was also investigated.
Technical Paper

Reduction in Pollutant Emissions in an “Off-Road” DI Diesel Engine by Means of Exhaust Gas Recirculation

2011-11-08
2011-32-0610
The aim of this work was to obtain a reduction in pollutant emissions, in particular for NOx and Soot, in an “Off-Road” DI Diesel Engine, equipped with a common rail injection system, by means of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). First, an engine simulation was performed using a one-dimensional code, and the model was then calibrated with experimental results obtained from a previous research work conducted on bench tests. Thanks to the engine model, specific emissions were then determined in all conditions, that is, in “eight modes” pertaining to engine loads and speeds. Both the injection advance and EGR amount were changed for all of these conditions in order to obtain the best compromise between fuel consumption and emissions and to respect standard regulations. The investigation was performed using both the Wiebe and a more complex combustion models; this latter allows in fact to determine the soot emission through the Nagle-Strickland model.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Predictive Modeling of Combustion and NOx Formation in Diesel Engines Under Transient Conditions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0899
The present work has the aim of developing a fast approach for the predictive calculation of in-cylinder combustion temperatures and NOx formation in diesel engines, under steady state and transient conditions. The model has been tested on a PC, and found to require very little computational time, thus suggesting it could be implemented in the ECU (Engine Control Unit) of engines for model-based control tasks. The method starts with the low-throughput predictive combustion model that was previously developed by the authors, which allows the predictive estimation of the heat-release rate and of the in-cylinder pressure trace to be made on the basis of the injection parameters and of a few quantities measured by the ECU, such as the intake manifold pressure and temperature.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Calculation of EGR Rate and Intake Charge Oxygen Concentration for Misfire Detection in Diesel Engines

2011-09-11
2011-24-0149
A new procedure for the real-time estimation of the EGR rate and charge oxygen concentration has been developed, assessed and applied to a low-compression ratio GMPT-E EURO V diesel engine. High EGR rates are usually employed in modern diesel engines to reduce combustion temperatures and NOx emissions, especially at medium-low load and speed conditions. The EGR rate is usually calibrated in steady-state conditions, but, under transient conditions, it can be responsible for misfire occurrence or non optimal combustion cycles, if not properly controlled. In other words, combustion instabilities can occur, especially during tip-in maneuvers, which imply transition from high EGR (low load) to low EGR (high load) rates. Misfire is determined by a temporary reduction in the intake charge oxygen concentration during the closure of the EGR valve.
Technical Paper

Rapid Optimal Design of a Light Vehicle Hydraulic Brake System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0831
Designing automobile brake systems is generally complex and time consuming. Indeed, the brake system integrates several components and has to satisfy numerous conflicting government regulations. Due to these constraints, designing an optimal configuration is not easy. This paper consequently proposes a simple, intuitive and automated methodology that enables rapid optimal design of light vehicle hydraulic brake systems. Firstly, the system is modeled through cascaded analytical equations for each component. A large design space is then generated by varying the operational parameters of each component in its specific reasonable range. The system components under consideration include the brake pedal, the master cylinder, the vacuum-assisted booster, the brake line and the brake pistons. Successful system configurations are identified by implementing the requirements of the two most relevant safety homologation standards for light vehicle brake systems (US and EU legislations).
Journal Article

Potentialities of Boot Injection Combined with After Shot for the Optimization of Pollutant Emissions, Fuel Consumption and Combustion Noise in Passenger Car Diesel Engines

2017-03-14
2017-01-9277
The present paper illustrates an investigation about the potentialities of injection rate shaping coupled with an after injection. A pilot shot can either be absent or present before the rate-shaped boot injection. The experimental tests have been performed on a partial PCCI Euro 5 diesel engine endowed with direct-acting piezoelectric injectors. Starting from optimized triple pilot-main-after injection strategies, boot injection was implemented by maintaining the direct-acting piezo injector needle open at part lift. The results of two steady state working conditions have been presented in terms of engine-out emissions, combustion noise and brake specific fuel consumption. In addition, in-cylinder analyses of the pressure, heat-release rate, temperature and emissions have been evaluated. Considering the in-cylinder pressure traces and the heat release rate curves, the injection rate shaping proved to influence combustion in the absence of a pilot injection to a great extent.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emission Comparison between a Conventional Euro VI Diesel Engine and an Optimized PCCI Version and Effect of EGR Cooler Fouling on PCCI Combustion

2018-04-03
2018-01-0221
Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) is an advanced combustion mode that has the aim of simultaneously reducing particulate matter and nitrogen oxide exhaust emissions, compared with conventional diesel combustion, thanks to a partially premixed charge and low temperature combustion. In this work, PCCI combustion has been implemented by means of an early single-injection strategy and large amounts of recirculated exhaust gas. Starting from a commercial Euro VI on-road engine, the engine hardware has been modified to optimize PCCI operations. This has involved adopting a smaller turbo group, a new combustion chamber and injectors, and a dedicated high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation system. The results, in terms of engine performance and exhaust emissions, under steady-state operation conditions, are presented in this work, where the original Euro VI calibration of the conventional engine has been compared with the PCCI calibration of the optimized hardware engine.
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