Refine Your Search


Search Results

Technical Paper

UV-Visible Imaging and Natural Emission Spectroscopy of Premixed Combustion in High Swirl Multi-Jets Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled with Diesel-Gasoline Blend

One promising approach to reduce pollutants from compression ignition engines is the Partially-Premixed- Combustion in which engine out emissions can be reduced by promoting mixing of fuel and air prior to auto-ignition. A great interest for a premixed combustion regime is the investigation on fuels with different reactivity by blending diesel with lower cetane number and higher volatility fuels. In fact, fuels more resistant to auto-ignition give longer ignition delay that may enhance the fuel/air mixing prior to combustion. During the ignition delay period, the fuel spray atomizes into small droplets, vaporizes and mixes with air. As the piston moves towards TDC, as soon as the mixture temperature reaches the ignition point, instantaneously some pre-mixed amount of fuel and air ignites. The balance of fuel that does not burn in premixed combustion is consumed in the rate-controlled combustion phase, also known as diffusion combustion.
Technical Paper

The Full Cycle HD Diesel Engine Simulations Using KIVA-4 Code

With the advent of the KIVA-4 code which employs an unstructured mesh to represent the engine geometry, the gap in flexibility between commercial and research modeling software becomes more narrow. In this study, we tried to perform a full cycle simulation of a 4-stroke HD diesel engine represented by a highly boosted research IF (Isotta Fraschini) engine using the KIVA-4 code. The engine mesh including the combustion chamber, intake and exhaust valves and helical manifolds was constructed using optional O-Grids catching a complex geometry of the engine parts with the help of the ANSYS ICEM CFD software. The KIVA-4 mesh input was obtained by a homemade mesh converter which can read STAR-CD and CFX outputs. The simulations were performed on a full 360 deg mesh consisting of 300,000 unstructured hexahedral cells at BDC. The physical properties of the liquid fuel were taken corresponding to those of real diesel #2 oil.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Investigation of Post-Injection Strategy Impact on Fuel Vapor within the Exhaust Line of a Light Duty Diesel Engine Supplied with Diesel/Butanol and Gasoline Blends

In this paper, a high temporal resolution optical technique, based on the multi-wavelength UV-visible-near IR extinction spectroscopy, was applied at the exhaust of an automotive diesel engine to investigate the post-injection strategy impact on the fuel vapor. Experimental investigations were carried out using three fuels: commercial diesel (B5), a blend of 80% diesel with 20% by vol. of gasoline (G20) and a blend of 80% diesel with 20% by vol. of n-butanol (BU20). Experiments were performed at the engine speed of 2500rpm and 0.8MPa of brake mean effective pressure exploring two post-injection timings and two EGR rates. The optical diagnostic allowed evaluating, during the post-injection activation, the evolution of the fuel vapor in the engine exhaust line. The investigation was focused on the impact of post-injection strategy and fuel properties on the aptitude to produce hydrocarbon rich gaseous exhaust for the regeneration of diesel particulate trap (DPF).
Technical Paper

PIV Investigation of High Swirl Flow on Spray Structure and its Effect on Emissions in a Diesel-Like Environment

The paper presents results of an experimental investigation of the fluid dynamic processes during the air/fuel mixture formation period between an evaporating diesel spray and swirl air flow under realistic engine conditions. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiments have been carried out using an optically accessible prototype 2-stroke diesel engine equipped with a swirled combustion chamber. The flow within the chamber assumes a well structured swirl motion, similar to that developing in a real diesel engine, operating at high swirl ratio. The engine has been equipped with a common rail injection system and a solenoid-controlled injector, in use on automotive engines for the European market, able to manage multiple injection strategies. Two injector nozzles have been tested: a micro-sac 5-hole nozzle, 0.13 mm diameter, 150° spray angle and a 7-hole, 0.141 mm diameter, 148° spray angle.
Technical Paper

Optical Properties Investigation of Alternative Fuels Containing Carbon-Based Nanostructures

Liquids with stable suspensions of nanoscale materials are defined as nanofluids. As reported in recent scientific literature, a very small amount of suspended nanostructures has the potential to enhance the thermo physical, transport and radiative properties of the base fluid. One of the main applications of this technology is in the field of combustion and fuels. In fact, adding nanomaterials (such as metals, oxides, carbides, nitrides, or carbon-based nanostructures) to liquid fuels is able to enhance ignition and combustion. The focus of this research is to gain a fundamental understanding of the characteristics of a nanofluid fuel prepared using carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) dispersed in butanol. This study starts with the investigation of the optical properties of the mixtures. The transmission spectra of the nanofluids are measured in a wide wavelength range from UV (250 nm) to near IR (800 nm).
Technical Paper

Optical Investigation of the Effect on the Combustion Process of Butanol-Gasoline Blend in a PFI SI Boosted Engine

The addition of alcohol to conventional hydrocarbon fuels for a spark-ignition engine can increase the fuel octane rating and the power for a given engine displacement and compression ratio. In this work, the influence of butanol addition to gasoline was investigated. The experiments were performed in an optical ported fuel injection single-cylinder SI engine with an external boosting device. The engine was equipped with the head of a commercial SI turbocharged engine having the same geometrical specifications (bore, stroke and compression ratio). The effect of a blend of 20% of n-butanol and 80% of gasoline (BU20) on in-cylinder combustion process was investigated by cycle-resolved visualization. The engine worked at low speed, medium boosting and wide open throttle. Changes in spark timing and fuel injection phasing were considered. Comparisons between the flame luminosity and the combustion pressure data were performed.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigation of Premixed Low-Temperature Combustion of Lighter Fuel Blends in Compression Ignition Engines

Optical imaging and UV-visible detection of in-cylinder combustion phenomena were made in a single cylinder optically accessed high swirl multi-jets compression ignition engine operating with two different fuels and two EGR levels. A commercial diesel fuel and a lighter fuel blend of diesel (80%) and gasoline (20%), named G20, were tested for two injection pressures (70 and 140 MPa) and injection timings in the range 11 CAD BTDC to 5 CAD ATDC. The blend G20 has a lower cetane number, is more volatile and more resistant to the auto-ignition than diesel yielding an effect on the ignition delay and on the combustion performance. Instantaneous fuel injection rate, in-cylinder combustion pressure, NOx and smoke engine out emissions were measured. Taking into account the particular configuration of the engine, the efficiency was estimated by determining the area under the working engine cycle.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigation of Post-injection Strategy Impact on the Fuel Vapor within the Exhaust Line of a Light Duty Diesel Engine Supplied with Biodiesel Blends

Multi-wavelength ultraviolet-visible extinction spectroscopy was applied to follow the evolution of fuel vapor injected by post-injection along the exhaust line of a common-rail turbocharged direct-injection diesel engine at moderate speed and load. The exhaust line was specifically designed and customized to allow the insertion of the optical access upstream of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst. During the experimental campaign, the engine was fuelled with commercial B5 fuel and a B30 v/v blend of RME and ultra low sulfur diesel, monitoring emissions upstream of the catalyst and exhaust gas temperature across the catalyst. Tests were performed at different engine operating conditions with particular attention to moderate speed and load.
Journal Article

Optical Diagnostics of the Pollutant Formation in a CI Engine Operating with Diesel Fuel Blends

To meet the future stringent emission standards, innovative diesel engine technology, exhaust gas after-treatment, and clean alternative fuels are required. Oxygenated fuels have showed a tendency to decrease internal combustion engine emissions. In the same time, advanced fuel injection modes can promote a further reduction of the pollutants at the exhaust without penalty for the combustion efficiency. One of the more interesting solutions is provided by the premixed low temperature combustion (LTC) mechanism jointly to lower-cetane, higher-volatility fuels. In this paper, to understand the role played by these factors on soot formation, cycle resolved visualization, UV-visible optical imaging and visible chemiluminescence were applied in an optically accessed high swirl multi-jets compression ignition engine. Combustion tests were carried out using three fuels: commercial diesel, a blend of 80% diesel with 20% gasoline (G20) and a blend of 80% diesel with 20% n-butanol (BU20).
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Diesel Air Fuel Mixing

The air fuel mixing process of a small direct injection (d.i.) diesel engine, equipped with two different re-entrant combustion chambers and two nozzles having unlike spray angles, has been studied by integrated use of in-cylinder laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements, engine tests, and KIVA simulations. The LDV measurements have been carried out in an engine with optical access motored at 2200 rpm. The engine tests have been performed on a similar engine at the same speed, at fixed start of combustion, and different air-fuel ratio. The KIVA-II simulations have been made using as initial conditions the parameters determined by LDV and engine tests. The re-entrant bowl with higher levels of air velocity and turbulent kinetic energy at the time of injection gives the best performance. The nozzle having a spray angle of 150° which injects the fuel into the regions at higher turbulent kinetic energy lowers the smoke emission levels.
Technical Paper

Multi-Wavelength Spectroscopic Investigations of the Post-Injection Strategy Effect on the Fuel Vapor within the Exhaust Line of a Light Duty Diesel Engine Fuelled with B5 and B30

Optical diagnostic was applied to undiluted engine exhaust to supply a low cost and real time evaluation of the oil dilution tendency of selected fuels. Specifically, UV-visible-near IR extinction spectroscopy was applied in the exhaust line of a Euro 5 turbocharged, water cooled, DI diesel engine, equipped with a common rail injection system. The engine was fuelled with commercial B5 fuel and a B30 v/v blend of RME and ultra low sulfur diesel. The proposed experimental methodology allowed to identify the contribution to the multi-wavelength extinction of soot, fuel vapor, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide. Further, the evolution of each species for different post-injection interval settings was followed. On-line optical results were correlated with off-line liquid fuel absorption values. Moreover, spectroscopic measurements were linked to in-cylinder pressure related data and with HC and smoke exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

Integral and Micro Time Scales Estimate in a D.I. Diesel Engine

The present paper aims at developing a general method to estimate integral and microtime scales of turbulent in-cylinder flow field in reciprocating engines. The ensemble average technique was used to compute the integral time scale from the single point time autocorrelation function, whereas the microtime scale, representative of the most rapid changes that occur in the fluctuation, was computed as the intercept of the parabola that matches the autocorrelation function at the origin. Further, the microtime scale was also estimated by spectral analysis through the energy spectral density function of the ensemble turbulent fluctuation and the results obtained by the two methods were compared. The procedures were applied to the tangential component of the instantaneous velocity data collected, at different engine speeds (1,000, 1,500, 2,000 rpm), within a motored d.i. diesel engine equipped with a re-entrant combustion chamber, using the Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) technique.
Technical Paper

Intake Valve Flow Measurements Using PIV

Intake valve flow patterns have been measured quantitatively using particle image velocimetry (PIV) for a commercial 4-valve diesel cylinder head and valve system. The measurements have been made for low (600 engine RPM) and higher (1000 engine RPM) speeds, and at several planes in the valve curtain area. The measurements involve double exposure photography of laser light scattered by seed particles (≅1 μm) from a laser light sheet (≅ 0.5 mm by 50 mm) through an imaging system onto silver halide film. Subsequent processing produces the local particle displacement between the two exposures. Combined with the known time interval between exposures, the displacement information can produce velocity vectors at many locations in the field of view. The results of the experiments are shown as vector plots for each operating condition. In the plane of the illuminating laser sheet, velocity vectors representing local gas velocity are produced.
Technical Paper

Identification of a Common-Rail Diesel Jet Contour and Spray Droplet Velocity by Two Different Laser Techniques

Non evaporating diesel sprays from an Electronic Common Rail system are investigated by two different laser light techniques at room temperature within vessels at both ambient and high pressures. Injection is performed by using single-hole injectors of mini-sac type with nozzle orifices 0.18 and 0.22 mm, which operate at injection pressures in the range 40 to 120 MPa. The fuel used is the standard ISO 4113. The densities of ambient gas (nitrogen) are varied in the constant volume vessel within the range 1.2 ÷ 58.4 kg/m3. Two different laser diagnostics are used to infer quantitative information on jet properties. The first is the light Extinction Ratio (ER) method, which is applied at wavelengths 632.8 nm and 832 nm in correspondence of the early instants (∼200÷800 μs) after the end of the liquid injection to infer the average droplet diameter and the number concentration along the line-of-sight. The second experimental technique is the Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA).
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Study of the Water Injection to Improve the Fuel Economy of a Small Size Turbocharged SI Engine

In this work, a promising technique, consisting of a liquid Water Injection (WI) at the intake ports, is investigated to overcome over-fueling and delayed combustions typical of downsized boosted engines, operating at high loads. In a first stage, experimental tests are carried out in a spark-ignition twin-cylinder turbocharged engine at a fixed rotational speed and medium-high loads. In particular, a spark timing and a water-to-fuel ratio sweep are both specified, to analyze the WI capability in increasing the knock-limited spark advance. In a second stage, the considered engine is schematized in a 1D framework. The model, developed in the GT-Power™ environment, includes user defined procedures for the description of combustion and knock phenomena. Computed results are compared with collected data for all the considered operating conditions, in terms of average performance parameters, in-cylinder pressure cycles, burn rate profiles, and knock propensity, as well.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Combustion and Emissions of a Light Duty Diesel Engine Fuelled with Butanol-Diesel Blend

In the present paper, results of an experimental investigation carried out in a modern Diesel engine running at different operating conditions and fuelled with commercial diesel and n-butanol-diesel blend are reported. The investigation was focused on the management of injection strategy and combustion timing (CA50) exploring the effect of intake oxygen concentration and boost pressure on engine out emissions. The aim of the paper was to compare, with respect to commercial diesel, the effects of a fuel blend with a lower cetane number and higher volatility on performance and engine out emissions. Engine tests, with baseline diesel and a blend made by the baseline low sulphur diesel with 20% in volume of n-butanol (B20), were performed comparing engine out gaseous, smoke emissions and combustion efficiency. The investigation was performed on a turbocharged, water cooled, DI diesel engine, equipped with a common rail injection system.
Technical Paper

Effects of Premixed Low Temperature Combustion of Fuel Blends with High Resistance to Auto-ignition on Performances and Emissions in a High Speed Diesel Engine

This paper reports results of an experimental investigation to demonstrate the potential to employ blends of fuels having low cetane numbers that can provide high resistance to auto-ignition to reduce simultaneously NOx and smoke. Because of the higher resistance to auto-ignition, blends of diesel and gasoline at different volume fraction may provide more time for the mixture preparation by increasing the ignition delay. The result produces the potential to operate under partially premixed low temperature combustion with lower levels of EGR without excessive penalties on fuel efficiency. In addition to the diesel fuel, the tested blends were mixed by the baseline diesel with 20% and 40% of commercial EURO IV 98 octane gasoline by volume, denoted G20 and G40. The experimental activity has been performed on a turbocharged, water cooled, DI diesel engine, equipped with a common rail injection system.
Technical Paper

Effects of Low Temperature Premixed Combustion (LTPC) on Emissions of a Modern Diesel Engine for Passenger Cars

In this paper, a Low Temperature Premixed Combustion (LTPC) was investigated employing a four cylinder D.I. common rail Diesel engine, used for passenger cars on the European market. Experiments were carried out setting the engine speed at 2500 rpm with a fuel amount of 26 mg/str to realize an operating condition close to the point of NEDC at 0.8 MPa of BMEP. The experimental approach was the management of the start of injection, injection pressure and EGR rates as a method to control NOx and soot production. The investigation was first carried out testing engine performances and emissions as set from the commercial engine map. Afterward, engine tests were carried out exploring performances, gaseous and smoke emissions at late start of combustion [10 to 17.5 cad ATDC], injection pressures from 80 to 120 MPa and EGR rates up to 50%.
Technical Paper

Effect of Different Fuels Properties on Emissions and Performance of a Light Duty Four-Cylinder Diesel Engine Under Premixed Combustion

The use of biodiesel or oxygenated fuels from renewable sources in diesel engines is of particular interest because of the low environmental impact that can be achieved. The present paper reports results of an experimental investigation performed on a light duty diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel, gasoline and butanol mixed, at different volume fractions, with mineral diesel. The investigation was performed on a turbocharged DI four cylinder diesel engine for automotive applications equipped with a common rail injection system. Engine tests were carried out at 2500 rpm, 0.8 MPa of brake mean effective pressure selecting a single injection strategy and performing a parametric analysis on the effect of combustion phasing and oxygen concentration at intake on engine performance and exhaust emissions. The experiments demonstrated that the fuel properties have a strong impact on soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Combustion Optimization of a Marine DI Diesel Engine

Enhanced calibration strategies and innovative engine combustion technologies are required to meet the new limits on exhaust gas emissions enforced in the field of marine propulsion and on-board energy production. The goal of the paper is to optimize the control parameters of a 4.2 dm3 unit displacement marine DI Diesel engine, in order to enhance the efficiency of the combustion system and reduce engine out emissions. The investigation is carried out by means of experimental tests and CFD simulations. For a better control of the testing conditions, the experimental activity is performed on a single cylinder prototype, while the engine test bench is specifically designed to simulate different levels of boosting. The numerical investigations are carried out using a set of different CFD tools: GT-Power for the engine cycle analysis, STAR-CD for the study of the in-cylinder flow, and a customized version of the KIVA-3V code for combustion.