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Technical Paper

3-D Diesel Spray Simulations Using a New Detailed Chemistry Turbulent Combustion Model

2000-06-19
2000-01-1891
Until recently, the application of the detailed chemistry approach as a predictive tool for engine modeling has been sort of a “taboo” for different reasons, mainly because of an exaggerated rigor to the chemistry/turbulence interaction modeling. In terms of this ideology, if the interaction cannot be simulated properly, the detailed chemistry approach makes no sense. The novelty of the proposed methodology is the coupling of a generalized partially stirred reactor, PaSR, model with the high efficiency numerics to treat detailed oxidation kinetics of hydrocarbon fuels. In terms of this approach, chemical processes are assumed to proceed in two successive steps: the reaction follows after the micro-mixing is completed on a sub-grid scale.
Technical Paper

3-D Modeling of Conventional and HCCI Combustion Diesel Engines

2004-10-25
2004-01-2964
An investigation of the possibility to extend the 3-dimensional modeling capabilities from conventional diesel to the HCCI combustion mode simulation was carried out. Experimental data was taken from a single cylinder engine operating with early injections for the HCCI and a split-injection (early pilot+main) for the high speed Diesel engine operation. To properly phase the HCCI mode in the experiments, high amounts of cooled EGR and a decreased compression ratio were used. In numerical simulation performed using KIVA3-V code, modified to incorporate the Detailed Chemistry Approach the same conditions were reproduced. Special attention is paid on the analysis of the events leading up to the auto-ignition, which was reasonably well predicted.
Technical Paper

48V Mild-Hybrid Architecture Types, Fuels and Power Levels Needed to Achieve 75g CO2/km

2019-04-02
2019-01-0366
48V mild hybrid powertrains are promising technologies for cost-effective compliance with future CO2 emissions standards. Current 48V powertrains with integrated belt starter generators (P0) with downsized engines achieve CO2 emissions of 95 g/km in the NEDC. However, to reach 75 g/km, it may be necessary to combine new 48V powertrain architectures with alternative fuels. Therefore, this paper compares CO2 emissions from different 48V powertrain architectures (P0, P1, P2, P3) with different electric power levels under various driving cycles (NEDC, WLTC, and RTS95). A numerical model of a compact class passenger car with a 48V powertrain was created and experimental fuel consumption maps for engines running on different fuels (gasoline, Diesel, E85, CNG) were used to simulate its CO2 emissions. The simulation results were analysed to determine why specific powertrain combinations were more efficient under certain driving conditions.
Technical Paper

A 1D Method for Transient Simulations of Cooling Systems with Non-Uniform Temperature and Flow Boundaries Extracted from a 3D CFD Solution

2015-04-14
2015-01-0337
The current work investigates a method in 1D modeling of cooling systems including discretized cooling package with non-uniform boundary conditions. In a stacked cooling package the heat transfer through each heat exchanger depends on the mass flows and temperature fields. These are a result of complex three-dimensional phenomena, which take place in the under-hood and are highly non-uniform. A typical approach in 1D simulations is to assume these to be uniform, which reduces the authenticity of the simulation and calls for additional calibrations, normally done with input from test measurements. The presented work employs 3D CFD simulations of complete vehicle in STAR-CCM+ to perform a comprehensive study of mass-flow and thermal distribution over the inlet of the cooling package of a Volvo FM commercial vehicle in several steady-state operating points.
Technical Paper

A Catalytic NOX After-Treatment System for Heavy-Duty Trucks Using Diesel Fuel as Reducing Agent

1999-10-25
1999-01-3563
An advanced catalytic exhaust after-treatment system addresses the problem of NOX emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks, relying on real-time catalyst modelling. The system consists of de-NOX catalysts, a device for injection of a reducing agent (diesel fuel) upstream the catalysts, and computer programmes to control the injection of the reducing agent and to model the engine and catalysts in real time. Experiments with 5 different air-assisted injectors were performed to determine the effect of injector design on the distribution of the injected diesel in the exhaust gas stream. A two-injector set-up was investigated to determine whether system efficiency could be increased without increasing the amount of catalyst or the amount of reducing agent necessary for the desired outcome. The results were verified by performing European standard transient cycle tests as well as stationary tests.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on Knock Occurrence for Different Fuel Octane Number

2018-09-10
2018-01-1674
Combustion with knock is an abnormal phenomenon which constrains the engine performance, thermal efficiency and longevity. The advance timing of the ignition system requires it to be updated with respect to fuel octane number variation. The production series engines are calibrated by the manufacturer to run with a special fuel octane number. In the experiment, the engine was operated at different speeds, loads, spark advance timings and consumed commercial gasoline with research octane numbers (RON) 95, 97 and 100. A 1-dimensional validated engine combustion model was run in the GT-Power software to simulate the engine conditions required to define the knock envelope at the same engine operation conditions as experiment. The knock intensity investigation due to spark advance sweep shows that combustion with noise was started after a specific advance ignition timing and the audible knock occur by increasing the advance timing.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Drop-In Diesel Fuel Blends Containing Heavy Alcohols Considering Both Engine Properties and Global Warming Potentials

2016-10-17
2016-01-2254
Heavy alcohols can be mixed with fossil diesel to produce blended fuels that can be used in diesel engines. Alcohols can be obtained from fossil resources, but can also be produced more sustainably from renewable raw materials. The use of such biofuels can help to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector. This study examines four alcohol/diesel blends each containing one heavy alcohol: n-butanol, iso-butanol, 2-ethyl hexanol and n-octanol. All of the blends where prepared to function as drop-in fuels in existing engines with factory settings. To compensate for the alcohols′ low cetane numbers (CN), a third component with high CN was added to each blend, namely hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO). The composition of each mixture was selected to give an overall CN equal to that of fossil diesel fuel.
Journal Article

A Computational Investigation of Ground Simulation for a Saloon Car

2014-04-01
2014-01-0615
Automotive aerodynamics measurements and simulations now routinely use a moving ground and rotating wheels (MVG&RW), which is more representative of on-road conditions than the fixed ground-fixed wheel (FG&FW) alternative. This can be understood as a combination of three elements: (a) moving ground (MVG), (b) rotating front wheels (RWF) and (c) rotating rear wheels (RWR). The interaction of these elements with the flow field has been explored to date by mainly experimental means. This paper presents a mainly computational (CFD) investigation of the effect of RWF and RWR, in combination with MVG, on the flow field around a saloon vehicle. The influence of MVG&RW is presented both in terms of a combined change from a FG&FW baseline and the incremental effects seen by the addition of each element separately. For this vehicle, noticeable decrease in both drag and rear lift is shown when adding MVG&RW, whereas front lift shows little change.
Technical Paper

A Correction Method for Stationary Fan CFD MRF Models

2009-04-20
2009-01-0178
A common fan model to use in automotive under hood simulations is the Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) model and within the industry, for this specific application, this model is well known to under predict performance. In this paper we have examined the possibilities of correcting this deficiency with a simple “speed correction”. This is done by testing and simulating a production fan in the Volvo Fan Test Rig for two operating speeds, 1200 rpm and 2400 rpm. Pressure rise, fan power and static efficiency are presented as functions of volumetric flow rate. The simulations verify that using the MRF model the common behavior of under predicting pressure rise and performance of the fan occur. In addition, this work shows that; although the MRF is not predicting fan performance correctly it constitutes a reliable fan modeling strategy.
Technical Paper

A Diesel Engine Model, including Compression Brake for, Powertrain Control

2002-11-18
2002-01-3125
A diesel engine model, designed for studying events during automated gear shifting in a heavy duty truck is presented. It will be used for developing and evaluating powertrain control strategies. The deceleration in engine speed to the new synchronous speed, during an upshift, is of special intereset. The straightforward approach is to cut fuel and wait for the engine to slow down due to friction and pumping losses. In many cases, this approach is too slow, and the engine compression brake needs to be activated. The engine model, assuming quasi-steady, bidirectional thermodynamic flow with constant specific heat capacities, is implemented using Modelica. A simple model of the hydraulic circuit that governs the activation of the compression brake mode is incorporated in the model. Problems related to the simulation of the engine brake systems are discussed. They are handled by empirical correction factors. Measurements from rapid engine speed decelerations are used for verification.
Technical Paper

A Four Stroke Camless Engine, Operated in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Mode with Commercial Gasoline

2001-09-24
2001-01-3610
A single cylinder, naturally aspirated, four-stroke and camless (Otto) engine was operated in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode with commercial gasoline. The valve timing could be adjusted during engine operation, which made it possible to optimize the HCCI engine operation for different speed and load points in the part-load regime of a 5-cylinder 2.4 liter engine. Several tests were made with differing combinations of speed and load conditions, while varying the valve timing and the inlet manifold air pressure. Starting with conventional SI combustion, the negative valve overlap was increased until HCCI combustion was obtained. Then the influences of the equivalence ratio and the exhaust valve opening were investigated. With the engine operating on HCCI combustion, unthrottled and without preheating, the exhaust valve opening, the exhaust valve closing and the intake valve closing were optimized next.
Technical Paper

A Method to Evaluate the Compression Ratio in IC Engines with Porous Thermal Barrier Coatings

2018-09-10
2018-01-1778
The compression ratio is an important engine design parameter. It determines to a large extend engine properties like the achievable efficiency, the heat losses from the combustion chamber and the exhaust losses. The same properties are affected by insulation of the combustion chamber. It is therefore especially important to know the compression ratio when doing experiments with thermal barrier coatings (TBC). In case of porous TBCs, the standard methods to measure the compression ratio can give wrong results. When measuring the compression ratio by volume, using a liquid, it is uncertain if the liquid fills the total porous volume of the coating. And for a thermodynamic compression ratio estimation, a model for the heat losses is needed, which is not available when doing experiments with insulation. The subject of this paper is the evaluation of an alternative method to assess the compression ratio.
Technical Paper

A Model of Turbocharged Engines as Dynamic Drivetrain Members

1993-11-01
933050
An engine model for use in computer simulation of transient behavior in drivetrain and vehicle systems is presented. Two elements, important for deviation (e.g. turbo-lag) from steady state characteristics, are the inertia of the supercharging unit (turbo shaft) and the fuel injection control system. No extensive combustion calculations are carried out within the model. Instead it uses condensed results from existing combustion models and measurements. The model is semi-empirical. Some of the engine specific properties needed for simulation are (e.g. for a turbocharged diesel): engine data in steady state operation, mappings of compressor and turbine performance, inertia of the engine components condensed to the crankshaft, turbo shaft inertia, displacement, compression ratio and the essentials of the fuel injection control strategy. Input parameters to the computer program based on the model are accelerator pedal position and external torque acting on the flywheel.
Technical Paper

A New Paraffinic Fuel Impact on Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Diesel Engine

2002-07-09
2002-01-2218
Having low aromatic compounds, high cetane rating, higher heat of combustion and almost zero sulphur content, a new paraffinic fuel (NPF), developed by Oroboros AB Sweden, was believed to receive attention as a new alternative fuel. Therefore, further investigation and combustion analyses were conducted in a research single-cylinder diesel engine, where detailed thermodynamic analyses were performed by Burst to File high frequency signal sampling code and by the Dragon software, revealing the real thermochemistry history. The aim of this investigation was an effort to reduce the pollution levels in Santiago de Chile by introducing this new paraffinic fuel (NPF). Experimental results have shown that the NPF fuel has a significant impact not only on the emission levels, but also on other energetic parameters of the engine such as ignition delay, cylinder peak pressure, heat release gradient, indicated efficiency etc.
Technical Paper

A Novel Concept for Combined Hydrogen Production and Power Generation

2009-06-15
2009-01-1946
A novel concept of combined hydrogen production and power generation system based on the combustion of aluminum in water is explored. The energy conversion system proposed is potentially able to provide four different energy sources, such us pressurized hydrogen, high temperature steam, heat, and work at the crankshaft on demand, as well as to fully comply with the environment sustainability requirements. Once aluminum oxide layer is removed, the pure aluminum can react with water producing alumina and hydrogen while releasing a significant amount of energy. Thus, the hydrogen can be stored for further use and the steam can be employed for energy generation or work production in a supplementary power system. The process is proved to be self-sustained and to provide a remarkable amount of energy available as work or hydrogen.
Technical Paper

A Numerical and Experimental Study of Diesel Fuel Sprays Impinging on a Temperature Controlled Wall

2006-10-16
2006-01-3333
Both spray-wall and spray-spray interactions in direct injection diesel engines have been found to influence the rate of heat release and the formation of emissions. Simulations of these phenomena for diesel sprays need to be validated, and an issue is investigating what kind of fuels can be used in both experiments and spray calculations. The objective of this work is to compare numerical simulations with experimental data of sprays impinging on a temperature controlled wall with respect to spray characteristics and heat transfer. The numerical simulations were made using the STAR-CD and KIVA-3V codes. The CFD simulations accounted for the actual spray chamber geometry and operating conditions used in the experiments. Particular attention was paid to the fuel used for the simulations.
Technical Paper

A Process Membership Service for Active Safety Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1613
This paper describes a process membership protocol for distributed real-time systems that use both time-triggered and event-triggered message passing for communication between its processing nodes (ECUs). TTCAN and FlexRay are examples of communication networks that support such systems. The membership protocol supports redundancy management in architectures where distributed applications such as braking, stability control, and collision mitigation share a common set of processing nodes. We assume that each such application consists of several processes executing on different nodes and that each node executes processes belonging to different applications. The protocol allows a group of co-operating processes to establish a consistent view of each other's operational status, i.e. whether they function correctly or not.
Technical Paper

A Simple Model of Unsteady Turbulent Flame Propagation

1997-10-01
972993
A model of premixed turbulent combustion is modified for multi-dimensional computations of SI engines. This approach is based on the use of turbulent flame speed in order to suggest a closed balance equation for the mean combustion progress variable. The model includes a single unknown input parameter to be tuned. This model is tested against two sets of experimental data obtained by Bradley et al [17, 18 and 19] and Karpov and Severin [15] in fan-stirred bombs. The model quantitatively predicts the development of the turbulent flame speed, the effects of the initial pressure, temperature, and mixture composition on the turbulent flame speed, and the effects of r.m.s. turbulent velocity and burning mixture composition on the rate of the pressure rise. These results were computed with the same value of the aforementioned unknown input parameter of the model.
Technical Paper

A Structure and Calibration Method for Data-Driven Modeling of NOX and Soot Emissions from a Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0355
The development and implementation of a new structure for data-driven models for NOX and soot emissions is described. The model structure is a linear regression model, where physically relevant input signals are used as regressors, and all the regression parameters are defined as grid-maps in the engine speed/injected fuel domain. The method of using grid-maps in the engine speed/injected fuel domain for all the regression parameters enables the models to be valid for changes in physical parameters that affect the emissions, without having to include these parameters as input signals to the models. This is possible for parameters that are dependent only on the engine speed and the amount of injected fuel. This means that models can handle changes for different parameters in the complete working range of the engine, without having to include all signals that actually effect the emissions into the models.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Influence of Nozzle Orifice Geometries on Fuel Evaporation using Laser-Induced Exciplex Fluorescence

2003-05-19
2003-01-1836
Projected stringent emissions legislation will make tough demands on engine development. For diesel engines, in which combustion and emissions formation are governed by the spray formation and mixing processes, fuel injection plays a major role in the future development of cleaner engines. It is therefore important to study the fundamental features of the fuel injection process. In an engine the fuel is injected at high pressure into a pressurized and hot environment of air, which causes droplet formation and fuel evaporation. The injected fuel then forms a gaseous phase surrounding the liquid phase. The amount of evaporated fuel in relation to the total amount of injected fuel is of importance for engine performance, i.e. ignition delay and mixing rate. In this paper, the fraction of evaporated fuel was determined for sprays, using different orifice diameters ranging from 0.100 mm up to 0.227 mm, with the aid of a high-pressure spray chamber.
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