Refine Your Search



Search Results

Journal Article

A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions Behaviour in Optical and Metal Single-Cylinder Diesel Engines

Single cylinder optical engines are used for internal combustion (IC) engine research as they allow for the application of qualitative and quantitative non-intrusive, diagnostic techniques to study in-cylinder flow, mixing, combustion and emissions phenomena. Such experimental data is not only important for the validation of computational models but can also provide a detailed insight into the physical processes occurring in-cylinder which is useful for the further development of new combustion strategies such as gasoline homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and Diesel low temperature combustion (LTC). In this context, it is therefore important to ensure that the performance of optical engines is comparable to standard all-metal engines. A comparison of optical and all-metal engine combustion and emissions performance was performed within the present study.
Technical Paper

A Detailed Well to Wheel Analysis of CNG Compared to Diesel Oil and Gasoline for the French and the European Markets

Pollutants emissions from transportation have become a major focus of environmental concerns in the last decades. Many alternative fuels are under consideration, among which Natural Gas as fossil resource offering an advantageous potential to reduce local emissions. The European Commission has set an objective of 10% of Natural Gas consumption for the transport sector by 2020. In a sustainable development view, both vehicle emissions and energy supply chain analysis from well to wheel must be addressed. Even if the main focus today is on CO2 emissions, it is interesting to evaluate the pollutant emissions of the whole Well to Wheel chain. Besides, as the potential of reducing pollutant emissions of vehicle (due to the improvement of engines and severization of norms), looking at pollutant emissions of the Well to Tank part of the chain could show the possible further improvements. Former studies exist, comparing Natural Gas to conventional and non conventional fuels.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Tool for Vehicle Emissions, Consumption and Performance Analysis - Applications to DPF Modeling and DID Turbocharged Engine Control Design

Facing the stringent constraints on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions, the automotive manufacturers have to produce vehicles with an increasing number of complex systems working together. Numerical simulation for the system design, set-up and control strategies, helps to reduce the development cycle and the global cost. Existing simulation tools usually do not address, with a high level of details, the various physical domains involved in a vehicle powertrain. To overcome this challenge, IFP and IMAGINE, settled a partnership to develop detailed simulation tools dedicated to performance, consumption and emissions for conventional and hybrid vehicles [1]. These tools are integrated in a multi-domain simulation platform (AMESim®) where several levels of detail can be easily reached for each sub-element.
Technical Paper

A Study of Mixture Formation in Direct Injection Diesel Like Conditions Using Quantitative Fuel Concentration Visualizations in a Gaseous Fuel Jet

Quantitative fuel concentration visualizations are carried out to study the mixing process between fuel and air in Direct Injection (DI) Diesel like conditions, and generate high quality data for the validation of mixing models. In order to avoid the particular complication connected with fuel droplets, a gaseous fuel jet is investigated. Measurements are performed in a high-pressure chamber that can provide conditions similar to those in a diesel engine. A gas injection system able to perform injections in a high-pressure chamber with a good control of the boundary conditions is chosen and characterized. Mass flow rates typical of DI Diesel injection are reproduced. A Laser Induced Fluorescence technique requiring the mixing at high pressure of the fluorescent tracer, biacetyl, with the gaseous fuel, methane, is developed. This experimental technique is able to provide quantitative measurement of fuel concentration in high-pressure jets.
Technical Paper

AMT Control for a Mild-Hybrid Urban Vehicle with a Downsized Turbo-Charged CNG Engine

Compressed natural gas (CNG) is considered as one of the most promising alternative fuels for transportation due to its ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, in particular) and its abundance. An earlier study from IFP has shown that CNG has a considerable potential when used as a fuel for a dedicated downsized turbo-charged SI engine on a small urban vehicle. To take further advantage of CNG assets, this approach can be profitably extended by adding a small secondary (electrical) power source to the CNG engine, thus hybridizing the powertrain. This is precisely the focus of the new IFP project, VEHGAN, which aims to develop a mild-hybrid CNG prototype vehicle based on a MCC smart car equipped with a reversible starter-alternator and ultra-capacitors (Valeo Starter Alternator Reversible System, StARS).
Journal Article

Advanced Injection Strategies for Controlling Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion and Emissions

The simultaneous reduction of engine-out nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate emissions via low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategies for compression-ignition engines is generally achieved via the use of high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). High EGR rates not only result in a drastic reduction of combustion temperatures to mitigate thermal NOx formation but also increases the level of pre-mixing thereby limiting particulate (soot) formation. However, highly pre-mixed combustion strategies such as LTC are usually limited at higher loads by excessively high heat release rates leading to unacceptable levels of combustion noise and particulate emissions. Further increasing the level of charge dilution (via EGR) can help to reduce combustion noise but maximum EGR rates are ultimately restricted by turbocharger and EGR path technologies.
Journal Article

Cold Operation with Optical and Numerical Investigations on a Low Compression Ratio Diesel Engine

With a high thermal efficiency and low CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions, Diesel engines become leader of transport market. However, the exhaust-gas legislation evolution leads to a drastic reduction of NOx (nitrogen oxide) standards with very low particulate, HC (unburned hydrocarbons) and CO (carbon monoxide) emissions, while combustion noise and fuel consumption must be kept under control. The reduction of the volumetric compression ratio (CR) is a key factor to reach this challenge, but it is today limited by the capabilities to provide acceptable performances during very cold operation: start and idle below −10°C. This paper focuses on the understanding of the main parameter’s impacts on cold operation. Effects of parameters like hardware configuration and calibration optimization are investigated on a real 4 cylinder Diesel 14:1 CR engine, with a combination of specific advanced tools.
Journal Article

Cold Start on Diesel Engine: Is Low Compression Ratio Compatible with Cold Start Requirements?

Future emission standards for Diesel engine will require a drastic reduction of engine-out NOx emissions with very low level of particulate matter (PM), HC and CO, and keeping under control fuel consumption and combustion noise. One of the most promising way to reach this challenge is to reduce compression ratio (CR). A stringent limitation of reducing Diesel CR is currently cold start requirements. Indeed, reduction of ambient temperature leads to penalties in fuel vaporization and auto ignition capabilities, even more at very low temperature (-20°C and below). In this paper, we present the work operated on an HSDI Common rail Diesel 4-cyl engine in three area: engine tests till very low temperature (down to -25°C); in cylinder imaging (videoscope) and CFD code development for cold start operation. First, combustion chamber is adapted in order to reach low compression ratio (CR 13.7:1).
Journal Article

Cold Start on Diesel Engines: Effect of Fuel Characteristics

Faced with the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, diesel engines present the advantage of having low CO₂ emission levels compared to spark-ignited engines. Nevertheless, diesel engines still suffer from the fact that they emit pollutants and, particularly nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulates (PM). One of the most promising ways to meet this challenge is to reduce the compression ratio (CR). However a current limitation in reducing the diesel CR is cold start requirements. In this context, the fuel characteristics such as the cetane number, which represents ignition, and volatility could impact cold start. That is why a matrix of 8 fuels was tested. The cetane number ranges from 47.3 to 70.9 and the volatility, represented by the temperature necessary to distillate 5% of the product (T5%), ranges from 173 to 198°C. The engine tests were carried out at -25°C, on a common rail 4-cylinder diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Comparison and Coupling of Homogeneous Reactor and Flamelet Library Soot Modeling Approaches for Diesel Combustion

Soot models applied to Diesel combustion can be grouped into two classes, one based on the flamelet concept and the other based on the homogeneous reactor concept. The first assumes that the laminar diffusion flame structure of the reaction zone, in the mixture fraction space, is preserved while convected and strained by the turbulent flow. The second assumes that the properties of the reaction zone are locally homogeneous. Thus the aerodynamic and chemical reaction interactions are modeled with opposing assumptions: the first assumes fast chemistry, the second fast mixing. In this work, we first compare results obtained with a flamelet library approach to those with a homogeneous reactor approach. Recognizing that both types of models apply in different regions of Diesel combustion, we then propose a new approach for soot modeling in which they are coupled.
Technical Paper

Control-Oriented Mean-Value Model of a Fuel-Flexible Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engine

Among the last years, environmental concerns have raised the interest for biofuels. Ethanol, blended with gasoline seems particularly suited for the operation of internal combustion engines, and has been in use for severals years in some countries. However, it has a strong impact on engine performance, which is emphasized on recent engine architectures, with downsizing through turbocharging and variable valve actuation. Taking all the benefits of ethanol-blended fuel thus requires an adaptation of the engine management system. This paper intends to assess the effect of gasoline-ethanol blending from this point of view, then to describe a mean-value model of a fuel-flexible turbocharged PFI-SI engine, which will serve as a basis for the development of control algorithms. The focus will be in this paper on ethanol content estimation in the blend, supported by both simulation and experimental results.
Journal Article

Development of Specific Tools for Analysis and Quantification of Pre-ignition in a Boosted SI Engine

Recent developments on highly downsized spark ignition engines have been focused on knocking behaviour improvement and the most advanced technologies combination can face up to 2.5 MPa IMEP while maintaining acceptable fuel consumption. Unfortunately, knocking is not the only limit that strongly downsized engines have to confront. The improvement of low-end torque is limited by another abnormal combustion which appears as a random pre-ignition. This violent phenomenon which emits a sharp metallic noise is unacceptable even on modern supercharged gasoline engines because of the great pressure rise that it causes in the cylinder (up to 20 MPa). The phases of this abnormal combustion have been analysed and a global mechanism has been identified consisting of a local ignition before the spark, followed by a propagating phase and ended by a massive auto-ignition. This last step finally causes a steep pressure rise and pressure oscillations.
Technical Paper

Development of a Flex Fuel Vehicle: Impact on Powertrain's Design and Calibration

The benefits of running on ethanol-blended fuels are well known, especially global CO₂ reduction and performances increase. But using ethanol as a fuel is not drawbacks free. Cold start ability and vehicle autonomy are appreciably reduced. These two drawbacks have been tackled recently by IFP and its partners VALEO and Cristal Union. This article will focus on the second one, as IFP had the responsibility to design the powertrain of a fully flex-fuel vehicle (from 0 to 100% of ethanol) with two main targets: reduce the fuel consumption of the vehicle and maintain (at least) the vehicle performances. Using a MPI scavenging in-house concept together with turbocharging, as well as choosing the appropriate compression ratio, IFP managed to reach the goals.
Technical Paper

Development of the High Power NADI™ Concept Using Dual Mode Diesel Combustion to Achieve Zero NOx and Particulate Emissions

Due to their high thermal efficiency coupled with low CO2 emissions, Diesel engines are promised to an increasing part of the transport market if their NOx and particulate emissions are reduced. Today, adequate after-treatments, NOx and PM traps are under industrialization with still concerns about fuel economy, robustness, sensitivity to fuel sulfur and cost because of their complex and sophisticated strategy. New combustion process such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) are investigated for their potential to achieve near zero particulate and NOx emissions. Their main drawbacks are too high hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, combustion control at high load and then limited operating range and power output. As an answer for challenges the Diesel engine is facing, IFP has developed a combustion system able to reach near zero particulate and NOx emissions while maintaining performance standards of the D.I Diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Characteristics on the Performances and Emissions of an Early-injection LTC / Diesel Engine

New combustion processes like LTC (Low Temperature Combustion) that includes HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition), PCCI (Premixed Charge Compression Ignition), PPCI (Partial Premixed Compression Ignition)… are promising ways to reduce simultaneously NOx and PM. Nevertheless, these combustion processes can be used only on a limited part of the engine load and speed map. Therefore, it appeared interesting to assess how the fuel, through its characteristics, could enhance the operating range in such combustion processes. That was the aim of an international consortium carried out by IFP and supported by numerous industrial companies. First a specific procedure has been developed to compare the different fuels on a early injection HCCI single cylinder engine. Then, using this procedure, a matrix of fuels having different cetane numbers (CN = 40-63), volatilities and chemical compositions has been tested.
Journal Article

Effects of Methane/Hydrogen Blends On Engine Operation: Experimental And Numerical Investigation of Different Combustion Modes

The introduction of alternative fuels is crucial to limit greenhouse gases. CNG is regarded as one of the most promising clean fuels given its worldwide availability, its low price and its intrinsic properties (high knocking resistance, low carbon content...). One way to optimize dedicated natural gas engines is to improve the CNG slow burning velocity compared to gasoline fuel and allow lean burn combustion mode. Besides optimization of the combustion chamber design, hydrogen addition to CNG is a promising solution to boost the combustion thanks to its fast burning rate, its wide flammability limits and its low quenching gap. This paper presents an investigation of different methane/hydrogen blends between 0% and 40 vol. % hydrogen ratio for three different combustion modes: stoichiometric, lean-burn and stoichiometric with EGR.
Technical Paper

Ethanol as a Diesel Base Fuel - Potential in HCCI Mode

This work studies the potential of ethanol-Biodiesel-Diesel fuel blends in both conventional Diesel and HCCI combustion modes. First, ethanol based fuels were tested on a modern commercial multi-cylinder DI diesel engine. The aim of this phase was to assess how such fuels affect Diesel engine performances and emissions. These results indicate that low levels of PM and NOx emissions, with a contained fuel consumption penalty and with an acceptable noise level, are achievable when the Diesel-ethanol blends are used in combination with an optimized combustion control. Moreover, experiments with ethanol based blends were performed using a single cylinder engine, running under both early injection HCCI and Diesel combustion modes. Compared to a conventional fuel, these blends allow increasing the HCCI operating range and also lead to higher maximum power output in conventional Diesel combustion.
Technical Paper

Ethanol as a Diesel Base Fuel: Managing the Flash Point Issue - Consequences on Engine Behavior

Facing more and more stringent regulations, new solutions are developed to decrease pollutant emissions. One of them have shown promising and relevant results. It consists of the use of ethanol as a blending component for diesel fuel Nevertheless, the addition of ethanol to Diesel fuel affects some key properties such as the flash point. Consequently, Diesel blends containing ethanol become highly flammable at a temperature around ambient temperature. This study proposes to improve the formulation of ethanol based diesel fuel in order to avoid flash point drawbacks. First, a focus on physical and chemical properties is done for ethanol based diesel fuels with and without flash point improvement. Second, blends are tested on a passenger car diesel engine, under a wide operating range conditions from low load low speed up to maximum power. The main advantage of the ethanol based fuels generate low smoke level, that allows using higher EGR rate, thus leading to an important NOx decrease.
Technical Paper

Formulation of a One-Component Fuel Lumping Model to Assess the Effects of Fuel Thermodynamic Properties on Internal Combustion Engine Mixture Preparation and Combustion

A lumping model has been formulated to calculate the thermodynamic properties required for internal combustion engine multidimensional computations, including saturation pressure, latent heat of vaporization, liquid density, surface tension, viscosity, etc. This model consists firstly in reducing the analytical data to a single (i.e. pure) pseudo-component characterized by its molecular weight, critical pressure and temperature, and acentric factor. For a gasoline fuel, the required analytical data are those provided by gas chromatography. For a Diesel fuel, the required data are a true boiling point (TBP) distillation curve and the fuel density at a single temperature. This model provides a valuable tool for studying the effects of fuel physical properties upon the behavior of a vaporizing spray in a chamber, as well as upon direct injection gasoline and Diesel engines using the multidimensional (3D) KMB code.
Technical Paper

Gasoline Injection and Spray Combustion in a Cell with Conditions Typical of Direct Injection Engines

Penetration and combustion of fuel sprays is studied in conditions similar to gasoline direct injection engines. A closed pressurized and heated injection cell is used. It is equipped with quartz windows providing large optical accesses. A homogeneous flammable mixture is introduced in the cell and ignited to raise the internal pressure and temperature. Liquid fuel is injected at the time when the desired thermodynamic conditions are reached. Conditions representative of late injection in a direct-injection engine are selected. Gasoline spray ignition and combustion is provided by a spark plug with long electrodes, locating the electrode gap right in the middle of the spray. The combustion does not reach the wall, which makes this experiment interesting for the validation of combustion in CFD codes. Two pressure swirl injectors with spray angles of 60 and 90 degree are used. The fuel is iso-octane with 5% 3-pentanone as tracer.