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Technical Paper

2-Stroke CAI Operation on a Poppet Valve DI Engine Fuelled with Gasoline and its Blends with Ethanol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1674
Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. Currently, CAI combustion is constrained at part load operation conditions because of misfire at low load and knocking combustion at high load, and the lack of effective means to control the combustion process. Extending its operating range including high load boundary towards full load and low load boundary towards idle in order to allow the CAI engine to meet the demand of whole vehicle driving cycles, has become one of the key issues facing the industrialisation of CAI/HCCI technology. Furthermore, this combustion mode should be compatible with different fuels, and can switch back to conventional spark ignition operation when necessary. In this paper, the CAI operation is demonstrated on a 2-stroke gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine equipped with a poppet valve train.
Technical Paper

4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine with Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion: a comparison between Naturally Aspirated and Turbocharged Operation

2008-10-07
2008-36-0305
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is increasingly seen as a very effective way of lowering both fuel consumption and emissions. Hence, it is regarded as one of the best ways to meet stringent future emissions legislation. It has however, still many problems to overcome, such as limited operating range. This combustion concept was achieved in a production type, 4-cylinder gasoline engine, in two separated tests: naturally aspirated and turbocharged. Very few modifications to the original engine were needed. These consisted basically of a new set of camshafts for the naturally aspirated test and new camshafts plus turbocharger for the test with forced induction. After previous experiments with naturally aspirated CAI operation, it was decided to investigate the capability of turbocharging for extended CAI load and speed range.
Technical Paper

A Guide to Measurement of Flame Temperature and Soot Concentration in Diesel Engines Using the Two-Colour Method Part 2: Implementation

1994-10-01
941957
The measurement of the instantaneous flame temperature and soot concentration in the combustion chamber of a running diesel engine can provide useful information relating to the formation of two important exhaust pollutants, NOx and particulates. The two-colour method is based on optical pyrometry and it can provide estimates of the instantaneous flame temperature and soot concentration. The theoretical basis of the method is outlined in a companion paper. This paper deals with the practical problems involved in the construction of a working system, including suitable calibration techniques. The accuracy of the measurements of flame temperature and soot concentration is also discussed using results from a various sources.
Technical Paper

A Guide to Measurement of Flame Temperature and Soot Concentration in Diesel Engines Using the Two-Colour Method Part I: Principles

1994-10-01
941956
The two-colour method is based on optical pyrometry and can readily be implemented at a modest cost for the measurement of the instantaneous flame temperature and soot concentration in the cylinders of diesel engines. With appropriate modification, this method can be applied to other continuous and intermittent combustion systems, such as those for gas turbine and boiler burners. This paper outlines the theoretical basis of the method, with particular attention being paid to the assumptions relating to the evaluation of the flame temperature and soot concentration. A companion paper deals with the practical problems involved in constructing a working system, including suitable calibration techniques, and assessment of the method accuracy.
Technical Paper

A Linear Catalyst Temperature Sensor for Exhaust Gas Ignition (EGI) and On Board Diagnostics of Misfire and Catalyst Efficiency

1993-03-01
930938
Afterburning of a rich exhaust/air mixture ahead of the catalyst has been shown in earlier papers to offer an effective means of achieving catalyst light-off in very short times. Protection of the catalyst from overheating is an important aspect of systems using EGI, and on board diagnostics will be required to check for proper function of EGI. In this paper, some options for these requirements are discussed, using a high temperature linear thermistor.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Gaseous and PM Emissions of 4-Stroke CAI/HCCI and SI Combustion in a DI Gasoline Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1549
Direct injection gasoline engines have the potential for improved fuel economy through principally the engine down-sizing, stratified charge combustion, and Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI). However, due to the limited time available for complete fuel evaporation and the mixing of fuel and air mixture, locally fuel rich mixture or even liquid fuel can be present during the combustion process of a direct injection gasoline engine. This can result in significant increase in UHC, CO and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from direct injection gasoline engines which are of major concerns because of the environmental and health implications. In order to investigate and develop a more efficient DI gasoline engine, a camless single cylinder DI gasoline engine has been developed. Fully flexible electro-hydraulically controlled valve train was used to achieve spark ignition (SI) and Controlled Autoignition (CAI) combustion in both 4-stroke and 2-stroke cycles.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Tumble and Swirl Motions in a Four-Valve SI Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3555
Tumble and swirl motions in the cylinder of a four-valve SI engine with production type cylinder head were investigated using a cross-correlation digital Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Tumble motion was measured on the vertical symmetric plane of the combustion chamber. Swirl motion was measured on a plane parallel to the piston crown with one of intake ports blocked. Large-scale flow behaviours and their cyclic variations were analysed from the measured two-dimensional velocity data. Results show that swirl motion is generated at the end of the intake stroke and persists to the end of the compression stroke. Tumble vortex is produced in the early stage of the compression stroke and distorted in the late stage of the stroke. The cyclic variation of swirl motion is noticeable. The cyclic variation in tumble dominated flow field is much greater.
Technical Paper

CAI Combustion with Methanol and Ethanol in an Air-Assisted Direct Injection SI Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1673
CAI combustion has the potential to be the most clean combustion technology in internal combustion engines and is being intensively researched. Following the previous research on CAI combustion of gasoline fuel, systematic investigation is being carried out on the application of bio-fuels in CAI combustion. As part of an on-going research project, CAI combustion of methanol and ethanol was studied on a single-cylinder direct gasoline engine with an air-assisted injector. The CAI combustion was achieved by trapping part of burnt gas within the cylinder through using short-duration camshafts and early closure of the exhaust valves. During the experiment the engine speed was varied from 1200rpm to 2100rpm and the air/fuel ratio was altered from the stoichiometry to the misfire limit. Their combustion characteristics were obtained by analysing cylinder pressure trace.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Potential of Premixed Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Heavy Duty Natural Gas/Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0790
Natural Gas (NG) is currently a cost effective substitute for diesel fuel in the Heavy-Duty (HD) diesel transportation sector. Dual-Fuel engines substitute NG in place of diesel for decreased NOx and soot emissions, but suffer from high engine-out methane (CH4) emissions. Premixed Dual-Fuel Combustion (PDFC) is one method of decreasing methane emissions and simultaneously improving engine efficiency while maintaining low NOx and soot levels. PDFC utilizes an early diesel injection to adjust the flammability of the premixed charge, promoting more uniform burning of methane. Engine experiments were carried out using a NG and diesel HD single cylinder research engine. Key speeds and loads were explored in order to determine where PDFC is effective at reducing engine-out methane emissions over Conventional Dual-Fuel which uses a single diesel injection for ignition.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Low Load Ethanol Dual-Fuel Combustion using Single and Split Diesel Injections on a Heavy-Duty Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0778
The use of two different fuels to control the in-cylinder charge reactivity of compression ignition engines has been shown as an effective way to achieve low levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot emissions. The port fuel injection of ethanol on a common rail, direct injected diesel engine increases this reactivity gradient. The objective of this study is to experimentally characterize the controllability, performance, and emissions of ethanol-diesel dual-fuel combustion in a single cylinder heavy-duty engine. Three different diesel injection strategies were investigated: a late split, an early split, and an early single injection. The experiments were performed at low load, where the fuel conversion efficiency is typically reduced due to incomplete combustion. Ethanol substitution ratios varied from 44-80% on an energy input basis.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of CAI Combustion with Alcohol Fuels

2010-04-12
2010-01-0843
Due to its potential for simultaneous improvement in fuel consumption and exhaust emissions, controlled autoignition (CAI) combustion has been subject to continuous research in the last several years. At the same time, there has been a lot of interest in the use of alternative fuels in order to reduce reliance on conventional fossil fuels. Therefore, this experimental study has been carried out to investigate the effect of alcohol fuels on the CAI combustion process and on the resulting engine performance. The experimental work was conducted on an optical single cylinder engine with an air-assisted injector. To achieve controlled autoignition, residual gas was trapped in the cylinder by using negative valve overlap and an intake air heater was used to ensure stable CAI combustion in the optical engine. Methanol, ethanol and blended fuels were tested and compared with the results of gasoline.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a HCCI Engine Fuelled with Different n-Butanol-Gasoline Blends

2014-10-13
2014-01-2668
Biobutanol, i.e. n-butanol, as a second generation bio-derived alternative fuel of internal combustion engines, can facilitate the energy diversification in transportation and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from engines and vehicles. However, the majority of research was conducted on spark-ignition engines fuelled with n-butanol and its blend with gasoline. A few investigations were focused on the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines fuelled with n-butanol-gasoline blends. In this study, experiments were conducted in a single cylinder four stroke port fuel injection HCCI engine with fully variable valve lift and timing mechanisms on both the intake and exhaust valves. HCCI combustion was achieved by employing the negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy while being fueled with gasoline (Bu0), n-butanol (Bu100) and their blends containing 30% n-butanol by volume (Bu30).
Technical Paper

Comparison of HCCI Combustion Respectively Fueled with Gasoline, Ethanol and Methanol through the Trapped Residual Gas Strategy

2006-04-03
2006-01-0635
In this paper, HCCI combustion characteristics of three typical high octane number fuels, gasoline, ethanol and methanol, are compared in a Ricardo single cylinder port injection engine with compression ratio of 10.5. In order to trap enough high temperature residual gas to heat intake mixture charge for stable HCCI combustion, camshafts of the experimental engine are replaced by a set of special camshafts with low valve lift and short cam duration. The three fuels are injected into the intake port respectively in different mixture volume percentages, which are E0 (100% gasoline), E50 (50% gasoline, 50% ethanol), E100 (100% ethanol), M50 (50% gasoline, 50% methanol) and M100 (100% methanol). This work concentrates on the combustion and emission characteristics and the available HCCI operation range of these fuels. What's more, the detailed comparison of in-cylinder temperature, ignition timing and other parameters has been carried out.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Performance, Efficiency and Emissions between Gasoline and E85 in a Two-Stroke Poppet Valve Engine with Lean Boost CAI Operation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0827
Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. Most research on CAI/HCCI combustion operations have been carried out in 4-stroke gasoline engines, despite it was originally employed to improve the part-load combustion and emission in the two-stroke gasoline engine. However, conventional ported two-stroke engines suffer from durability and high emissions. In order to take advantage of the high power density of the two-stroke cycle operation and avoid the difficulties of the ported engine, systematic research and development works have been carried out on the two-stroke cycle operation in a 4-valves gasoline engine. CAI combustion was achieved over a large range of operating conditions when the relative air/fuel ratio (lambda) was kept at one as measured by an exhaust lambda sensor.
Technical Paper

Computational Study of the Effects of Injection Timing, EGR and Swirl Ratio on a HSDI Multi-Injection Diesel Engine Emission and Performance

2003-03-03
2003-01-0346
Reductions in fuel consumption, noise level, and pollutant emissions such as, Nitrogen Oxide (NOX) and Particulate Matter (PM), from direct-injection (DI) diesel engines are important issues in engine research. To achieve these reductions, many technologies such as high injection pressure, multiple injection, retarded injection timing, EGR, and high swirl ratio have been used in high-efficiency DI diesel engines in order to achieve combustion and emission control. However, each technology has its own advantages and disadvantages, and there is a very strong interaction between these methods when they are simultaneously used in the engine. This study presents a computational study of both the individual effect and their interactions of injection timing, EGR and swirl ratio separately and their interaction in a HSDI common rail diesel engine using the KIVA-3V code.
Technical Paper

Continuous Load Adjustment Strategy of a Gasoline HCCI-SI Engine Fully Controlled by Exhaust Gas

2011-04-12
2011-01-1408
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) technology is promising to reduce engine exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. However, it is still confronted with the problem of its narrow operation range that covers only the light and medium loads. Therefore, to expand the operation range of HCCI, mode switching between HCCI combustion and transition SI combustion is necessary, which may bring additional problems to be resolved, including load fluctuation and increasing the complexity of control strategy, etc. In this paper, a continuously adjustable load strategy is proposed for gasoline engines. With the application of the strategy, engine load can be adjusted continuously by the in-cylinder residual gas fraction in the whole operation range. In this research, hybrid combustion is employed to bridge the gaps between HCCI and traditional SI and thus realize smooth transition between different load points.
Technical Paper

Control of CAI Combustion Through Injection Timing in a GDI Engine With an Air- Assisted Injector

2005-04-11
2005-01-0134
Controlled auto Ignition (CAI) combustion has great potential for reducing both NOx emissions and fuel consumption in IC engines and the application of direct injection technology to the CAI engine adds another dimension of control to the combustion process. In this work an air-assisted injection system was applied to an engine that used residual gas to initiate and control CAI combustion. Injections were performed at Exhaust valve closure (EVC), intake valve opening (IVO) and BDC of the intake/compression stroke and the effects on combustion phasing (i.e. ignition timing and burn duration), engine output, fuel consumption and exhaust emissions analyzed. Injection at EVC gave the best results in terms of engine output, operating range and combustion stability. Injection at IVO generally resulted in the lowest fuel consumption. It was found that injection timing is an effective means of controlling combustion phasing.
Technical Paper

Developing a Fuel Stratification Concept on a Spark Ignition Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0476
A fuel stratification concept has been developed in a three-valve twin-spark spark ignition engine. This concept requires that two fuels or fuel components of different octane numbers (ON) be introduced into the cylinder separately through two independent inlet ports. They are then stratified into two regions laterally by a strong tumbling flow and ignited by the spark plug located in each region. This engine can operate in the traditional stratified lean-burn mode at part loads to obtain a good part-load fuel economy as long as one fuel is supplied. At high loads, an improved fuel economy might also be obtained by igniting the low ON fuel first and leaving the high ON fuel in the end gas region to resist knock. This paper gives a detailed description of developing the fuel stratification concept, including optimization of in-cylinder flow, mixture and combustion.
Technical Paper

Development of a Two-Stroke/Four-Stroke Switching Gasoline Engine - The 2/4SIGHT Concept

2005-04-11
2005-01-1137
The pursuit of flexibility is a recurring theme in engine design and development. Engines that are able to switch between the two-stroke operating cycle and four-stroke operation promise a great leap in flexibility. Such 2S-4S engines could then continuously select the optimum operating mode - including HCCI/CAI combustion - for fuel efficiency, emissions or specific output. With recent developments in valvetrain technology, advanced boosting devices, direct fuel injection and engine control, the 2S-4S engine is an increasingly real prospect. The authors have undertaken a comprehensive feasibility study for 2S-4S gasoline engines. This study has encompassed concept and detailed design, design analysis, one-dimensional gas dynamics simulation, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics, and vehicle simulation. The resulting 2/4SIGHT concept engine is a 1.04 l in-line three-cylinder engine producing 230 Nm and 85 kW.
Technical Paper

Diesel Soot Oxidation under Controlled Conditions

2001-09-24
2001-01-3673
A quantitative relationship between diesel soot oxidation rate and oxidation temperature and oxygen partial pressure was investigated by burning the diesel exhaust soot particles in a controlled flat flame supplied with methane/air/oxygen/nitrogen mixtures. The oxidation temperature and the oxygen partial pressure were controlled in the ranges of 1530 to 1820 K and 0.01 to 0.05 atm (1atm = 1.01325 bar) respectively. Soot particle size distribution measurements were achieved with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for particle samples that were collected on copper grids at different positions along the flame centerline. Oxidation periods were determined by means of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). The experimental results showed that the experimental oxidation rates fall between the values predicted by the Nagle and Strickland-Constable formula and those by the Lee formula.
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