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Technical Paper

2-Door Vehicle Body Local Force Evaluation with the IIHS, EuroNCAP, and LINCAP Side Impact Barriers

Structure enhancement based on data monitored in a traditional side impact evaluation is primarily a trial and error exercise resulting in a large number of computer runs. This is because how the structure gets loaded and the degree of contribution of local structural components to resist the impact while absorbing energy during a side collision is not completely known. Developing real time complete load profiles on a body side during the time span of an impact is not an easy task and these loads cannot be calculated from that calculated at the barrier mounting plate. This paper highlights the load distribution, calculated by a procedure using computer aided engineering (CAE) tools, on a typical 2-door vehicle body side when struck by moving deformable barriers used in the insurance institute for highway safety (IIHS), EuroNCAP and LINCAP side impact evaluations.
Technical Paper

3-D Crash Analysis Using ADAMS

The dynamics of vehicle front end crash are studied using the ADAMS dynamic simulation code. The analysis is carried out in three dimensions and can capture the behavior associated with an asymmetrical structure or impact mode. Subroutines which allow the modeling of structural crush and plastic hinge formation, contact forces and friction forces are discussed. The method is relatively inexpensive, but does require a good understanding of the problem on the part of the analyst. A discussion of the techniques that are used to model the structural system is given. The results of the analysis are compared with experimental data and the correlation is very encouraging.
Technical Paper

3-Dimensional Simulation of Vehicle Response to Tire Blow-outs

Sudden tire deflation, or blow-out, is sometimes cited as the cause of a crash. Safety researchers have previously attempted to study the loss of vehicle control resulting from a blow-out with some success using computer simulation. However, the simplified models used in these studies did little to expose the true transient nature of the handling problem created by a blown tire. New developments in vehicle simulation technology have made possible the detailed analysis of transient vehicle behavior during and after a blow-out. This paper presents the results of an experimental blow-out study with a comparison to computer simulations. In the experiments, a vehicle was driven under steady state conditions and a blow-out was induced at the right rear tire. Various driver steering and braking inputs were attempted, and the vehicle response was recorded. These events were then simulated using EDVSM. A comparison between experimental and simulated results is presented.
Technical Paper

3D Deformation and Dynamics of the Human Cadaver Abdomen under Seatbelt Loading

According to accident analysis, submarining is responsible for most of the frontal car crash AIS 3+ abdominal injuries sustained by restrained occupants. Submarining is characterized by an initial position of the lap belt on the iliac spine. During the crash, the pelvis slips under the lap belt which loads the abdomen. The order of magnitude of the abdominal deflection rate was reported by Uriot to be approximately 4 m/s. In addition, the use of active restraint devices such as pretensioners in recent cars lead to the need for the investigation of Out-Of-Position injuries. OOP is defined by an initial position of the lap belt on the abdomen instead of the pelvis resulting in a direct loading of the abdomen during pretensioning and the crash. In that case, the penetration speed of the belt into the abdomen was reported by Trosseille to be approximately 8 to 12 m/s. The aim of this study was to characterize the response of the human abdomen in submarining and OOP.
Technical Paper

5-years status report of the advanced offset frontal crash protection

This paper will provide an overview of the work progress of the advanced offset frontal crash protection group of IHRA. It resumes, including tables, the strategy of the group to cope with the assigned task. This is the commitment to achieve an harmonized frontal crash protection procedure taking into account the different world wide views in this field.
Technical Paper

61 Fundamental Analysis of Motorcyclist Injury Risk Using A Statistical Model Based on Real-world Crashes

This paper describes the risk of injury to the rider in a crash using a statistical model based on real-world accident data. We analyzed the road traffic accidents data in Los Angeles and Hanover. Logistic regression modeling technique was used to clarify the relationship among probabilities of minor, serious, fatal injury risk to the rider, and the influence of risk factors in accidents involving opposing vehicle contact point, motorcycle contact point, opposing vehicle speed, motorcycle speed, relative heading angle of impact, and helmet use. The odds ratio, which was adjusted for risk factors simultaneously, was estimated by using the developed technique, and was compared with the effects of risk factors individually. The results showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between minor and serious injuries and opposing vehicle speed, motorcycle speed and opposing vehicle contact point.
Technical Paper

A 0-D Calculation Template to Define Crush Space Requirement and Body Front End Force Level Requirement in Concept Stage

Today’s automotive world has moved towards an age where safety of a vehicle is given the topmost priority. Many stringent crash norms and testing methodology has been defined in order to evaluate the safety of a vehicle prior to its launch in a particular market. If the vehicle fails to meet any of these criteria then it is debarred from that particular market. With such stringent norms and regulations in place it becomes quite important on the engineer’s part to define the structural requirements and protect the space to meet the same. If the concept level platform definition is done properly it becomes very easy to achieve the crash targets with less cost and weight impact.
Technical Paper

A 100 G Frontal Crash Sled Test System

This paper describes the development of a new sled system that can address many safety-related issues pertaining to the racing industry. The system was designed to re-create acceleration and velocity levels similar to levels evident in race car crashes. The sled utilizes equipment typically used in passenger car crash research with the primary change to a specially designed lightweight carriage. This paper will overview the system and the types of crash events that can be simulated. Readers of this paper will gain a much broader understanding of accelerator sled testing and the issues related to the simulation of high speed crashes using physical testing.
Technical Paper

A 2D Vehicle-to-Vehicle Crash Model for Fleet Analysis (Part-I)

This paper presents a 2D model for frontal vehicle-to-vehicle crashes that can be used for fleet modeling. It presents the derivational details and a preliminary assessment of the model. The model is based on rigid-body collision principles, enhanced adequately to represent energy dissipation and lateral engagement that plays a significant role in oblique frontal vehicle-to-vehicle crashes. The model employs the restitution and the apparent friction in order to represent dissipation and engagement respectively. It employs the impulse ellipse to identify the physical character of the crash, based on the principal directions of impulse. The enhancement of the rigid body collision model with restitution and apparent friction is based on collision simulations that use very simple finite element vehicle representations. The dependence of the restitution and the apparent friction on the incidence angle, the frontal offset, and the mass ratio, as predicted by the 2D model, has been presented.
Technical Paper

A 30 mph Front/Rear Crash with Human Test Persons

A great deal of data is available concerning accident simulation tests with test dummies or cadavers but in comparison there is very little material on tests involving living volunteers. This paper describes crash tests and sled tests with human test persons and Hybrid II dummies. To obtain a realistic accident simulation the tests were run with standard Audi 80 vehicles fitted with the standard seat belt systems. The results clearly demonstrate that none of the test persons sustain any kind of physical injury at a precisely defined level of accident severity (vehicle-to-vehicle crash at a collision speed of approx. 30 mph). In some cases considerable differences are revealed between the loadings imposed on the dummies and the human test persons.
Technical Paper

A 3D Finite Element Model of Pelvis in Side Impact

A 50th percentile male pelvis finite element model was designed for impact simulation. Shell elements represented the pelvic bone, which geometry was taken into account. Non linear viscous springs accounted for soft tissues connecting skin to bone structure, and body segments inertia around the pelvis were represented using rigid bodies. Geometric and mechanical characteristics were taken either from litterature or by identification to in house experimental results. Three dimensional movements were reproduced by the model for static lateral loading and dynamic lateral impact simulation at two different velocities, 3.5 and 6.5 m/s, with a good agreement with experimental results. This model takes into account pelvic bone geometry, allowing an appreciation of its deformation and therefore injury risk.
Journal Article

A Bayesian Approach to Cross-Validation in Pedestrian Accident Reconstruction

In statistical modeling, cross-validation refers to the practice of fitting a model with part of the available data, and then using predictions of the unused data to test and improve the fitted model. In accident reconstruction, cross-validation is possible when two different measurements can be used to estimate the same accident feature, such as when measured skidmark length and pedestrian throw distance each provide an estimate of impact speed. In this case a Bayesian cross-validation can be carried out by (1) using one measurement and Bayes theorem to compute a posterior distribution for the impact speed, (2) using this posterior distribution to compute a predictive distribution for the second measurement, and then (3) comparing the actual second measurement to this predictive distribution. An actual measurement falling in an extreme tail of the predictive distribution suggests a weakness in the assumptions governing the reconstruction.
Technical Paper

A Bio-Engineering Approach to Crash Padding

The injury-reducing functions of crash padding are discussed as they relate to head impact. The bony structure of the cranial vault (above eyebrows) is strong under localized impact compared with the face. Padding used to protect the cranial vault from impact has the primary function of absorbing energy to reduce the possibility of brain damage. On the other hand, padding for facial protection has the primary function of providing uniform load distribution on the face. The pad understructure then supplies the needed energy absorbing capacity. Test procedures to measure both energy absorption and load distribution are described, and evaluation criteria are shown. Other factors that affect padding, such as temperature and cover stock material, are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Biomechanical Evaluation of the Ford Side Impact Body Block and the SID and APR Side Impact Dummies

A test fixture for use on the Hyge Sled was fabricated to NHTSA specifications, matching the fixture used at Heidelberg University to measure forces on cadavers in side impact configurations. Tests were conducted at 16, 22, 24, and 32 km/h to simulate both the APR cadaver drop tests and Heidelberg sled tests. Comparisons to the cadaver data were made with the Ford Side Impact Body Block and the APR and SID dummies. Test results are shown and discussed.
Technical Paper

A Biomechanical Face for the Hybrid III Dummy

Biomechanical data on the response of the face to localized and distributed loads are analyzed to provide performance goals for a biomechanically realistic face. Previously proposed facial injury assessment techniques and dummy modifications are reviewed with emphasis on their biomechanical realism. A modification to the Hybrid III dummy, called the GM Hybrid III Deformable Face, is described. The modification produces biomechanically realistic frontal impact response for both localized and distributed facial loads and provides for contact force determination using conventional Hybrid III instrumentation. The modification retains the anthropometric and inertial properties and the forehead impact response of the standard Hybrid III head.
Technical Paper

A Case Study: Improvements in Automotive Motion Simulators Using Six Sigma Methodologies

Newer automobiles have complex dynamic and stability controls due to regulations, competition, and safety concerns. More systems require testing at the subcomponent level to ensure proper operation in the final vehicle assembly. Many of the stability and navigation features originally designed for aircraft components are now being incorporated into automobiles. Certain types of motion test simulators were originally designed for testing aircraft sensors as: gyroscopes, inertial navigation systems (INS), inertial measurement units (IMU), and attitude heading and reference systems (AHARS) This same type of equipment is now used for automotive testing as: airbag fuse sensors, anti-skid sensors, rollover sensors, vehicle stabilization systems, active suspension sensors, and navigation systems.
Technical Paper

A Centrifuge Concept for Measuring the Rollover Threshold of Light-Duty Vehicles

Various means for measuring a vehicle's roll stability performance are considered in terms of the pertinence of their test conditions to the rollover crash record, the practicality and quality of the measurement, and their ability to span the performance range of the population of light-duty vehicles. Classical static measures as well as the so-called “maneuver-type” tests that have been under extensive study by the U.S. Dept. of Transportation are specifically addressed. In light of limitations facing the existing methods, the concept of a centrifuge test device is introduced and discussed. The apparatus is comprised of a relatively large machine that mounts a full-sized vehicle tangent to the rotation of a radial arm which revolves at a controlled angular rate. The minimum steady speed of rotation that induces a rollover response in the mounted vehicle corresponds to the static rollover threshold, in units of lateral (or centripetal) acceleration.
Technical Paper

A Collision Avoidance Steering Controller using Linear Quadratic Regulator

Vehicle steering control can provide assistance to drivers for lane keeping, automated trajectory following, or more extreme evasive maneuvers. An active torque control steering system is designed using Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR), and its performance was evaluated using the commercial software CARSIM. The system is developed to maintain a desired trajectory for the vehicle in performing evasive maneuvers to avoid imminent crash scenarios. In order to better understand the behavior of the system with different controllers, a simple bicycle model of the vehicle was developed, and an LQR controller was developed to control vehicle steering torque. The controller uses yaw angle, yaw rate, velocity, and position of the vehicle to generate the required steering torque to follow the desired trajectory. An observer was developed to estimate non-measured parameters. Trajectories are generated to follow a lane change before reaching the obstacle.
Technical Paper

A Collision-Avoidance Warning System Using Laser Radar

The serious highway accidents related to heavy-duty trucks were caused mainly by absent-minded conditions of drivers, according to an investigation of highway accidents in Japan. Thus, a collision avoidance warning system has been developed. A laser radar sensor detects the distance to a reflector of the target vehicle. Together with information of the own vehicle speed detected by a magnetic pick-up, a microcomputer assesses the risk of a rear-end collision and provides warning when a dangerous condition has developed. Warning suppresion is considered in unnecessary situations, such as driving in curves, driving at constant speed and distance, and driving at low speed. The system was installed on a heavy-duty truck, and a system evaluation test was carried out on proving grounds and highways. As the result, false alarms created by reflectable objects located adjacent to the road and unnecessary warning could be sufficiently suppressed, and the system was found to be useful.
Technical Paper

A Compact Sled System for Linear Impact, Pole Impact, and Side Impact Testing

Accelerator-type sled systems have been very useful to the automotive industry for many years. These systems have allowed engineers to effectively evaluate a safety component in a frontal crash environment without having to conduct a full-scale crash test. While accelerator-type sleds are an excellent tool for frontal crashworthiness development, the energy required to simulate a side impact or lateral pole impact test is just a small fraction of the total capacity of the system. In light of this, a project was undertaken to develop a system which incorporated many features of the current accelerator-type sled system, but was designed to simulate non-frontal crash test cases. This paper describes the development and test applications for the new sled system. The operating theory and general design is similar to current accelerator-type sled systems, although the new system has been scaled down significantly.