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Technical Paper

Accident Reconstruction with Data Recorded by Electronic Control Units in Vehicles with a Pre-crash Safety System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1440
Data recorded by vehicle-mounted electronic control units (ECUs) are highly useful in traffic accident reconstruction. In this context, event data recorders (EDRs) are airbag ECU components used to log information from crash events, typically providing data on speed, accelerator operation, RPMs and brake lamp activation for a period of around 5 s before a collision. ...Thus, it is important to check the accuracy of EDR speed data in accident reconstruction. Meanwhile, pre-crash safety systems (PCSs) are also becoming more widespread in automobile usage today. ...Such systems automatically apply braking in hazardous situations, and the relevant data recorded in the ECU are promising in the field of accident reconstruction. This study involved physical tests in the form of simulated rear-end collisions and the collection of recorded PCS data at the post-test stage.
Technical Paper

The Use of Stationary Object Radar Sensor Data from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) in Accident Reconstruction

2016-04-05
2016-01-1465
The data from these sensors is unique because it measures objective environment information surrounding a vehicle, which can play a role in reconstructing and understanding the contributing factors of an accident. As more vehicles become equipped with advanced safety systems and the requisite sensors for automated vehicles, accident investigators will need to become familiar with system functionality, the data that the sensors measure and may record, as well as the limitations of that data in order to effectively and accurately analyze a crash. ...As more vehicles become equipped with advanced safety systems and the requisite sensors for automated vehicles, accident investigators will need to become familiar with system functionality, the data that the sensors measure and may record, as well as the limitations of that data in order to effectively and accurately analyze a crash. ...In addition, the authors propose in general how data from radars could be used to elucidate the location of fixed objects in the environment surrounding a vehicle for the purpose of understanding an accident.
Technical Paper

Accurate Flight Parameter Reconstruction from ATC Radar Data – A New Approach

1999-10-19
1999-01-5605
Previous work on this problem has used a rectilinear approach to the calculations involved in the flight parameter reconstruction. The rectilinear approach gives excellent results for relatively straight flight; however, it routinely underestimates the airspeed and the bank angle when the airplane is maneuvering. ...In the present study, the authors present a curvilinear approach to flight parameter reconstruction that addresses this shortcoming. The analysis presented shows that the curvilinear approach is a far superior tool than the rectilinear approach for the reconstruction of maneuvering flight including steep turns and high-speed spirals. ...The analysis presented shows that the curvilinear approach is a far superior tool than the rectilinear approach for the reconstruction of maneuvering flight including steep turns and high-speed spirals.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of the Accident Avoidance and Severity Reduction Potential of Radar Warning,Radar Actuated, and Anti-Lock Braking Systems

1977-02-01
770266
A group of 215 in-depth accident reports prepared as part of a tri-level accident causation study by a multidisciplinary team was examined to assess the benefit derived from the hypothetical application of various combinations of radar warning, radar actuated, and anti-lock braking systems. ...On one extreme, it was found that two-wheel anti-lock systems, by themselves, had relatively little accident prevention potential; only one of the 215 accidents (0.5%) would definitely have been prevented by such a system, although with less assurance there was some possibility of prevention of up to eight accidents (3.7%). ...On the other extreme, the most complex of the systems defined, comprised of a non-cooperative radar system with both actuation and warning potential, coupled with a four-wheel anti-lock system, would definitely have prevented 39 of these accidents (18.0%), with some possibility of prevention of up to 90 accidents (41.9% of those examined).
Technical Paper

Mechatronics Based Accident Alarming System with Automatic Roadblock Prevention System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1728
In any unlikely event of accidents or vehicle breakdown, there is accumulation of traffic which results in road-blockage and causes in convenience to other vehicles. ...If this happens in remote areas, the accidents victims are left unattended and there is delay in providing emergency services. In case of traffic, it obstructs the entry of ambulance and rescue team which results in death of passengers. ...To prevent this mishap, a mechatronics based road block avoidance and accident alarming system is designed which is automated by the use of sensors. The road-block is detected with the help sensors located at regular intervals on road.
Journal Article

Validating Speed Data from Cummins Engine Sudden Deceleration Data Reports

2009-04-20
2009-01-0876
Under certain conditions, many can also record parameters that are useful in accident reconstruction. Cummins engines are commonly found on highway tractors on the road today. ...Since this data reports second-by-second speed information, it can be very useful in the analysis of an accident. Establishing the reliability of this information is important, if it is to be used by an accident investigator. ...Establishing the reliability of this information is important, if it is to be used by an accident investigator. This paper explores the data recorded on a Cummins engine ECM created during a series of acceleration, cruising, and braking tests.
Journal Article

Comparison of Heavy Truck Engine Control Unit Hard Stop Data with Higher-Resolution On-Vehicle Data

2009-04-20
2009-01-0879
These data provide useful information to accident reconstruction personnel. In past studies, these data have been analyzed and compared to higher-resolution on-vehicle data for several heavy trucks and several makes of passenger cars. ...The goal of this study was to help accident reconstruction professionals better understand engine ECU “hard stop” data currently available on most commercial vehicles.
Standard

Early Acquisition and Preservation of Information in a Motor Vehicle Crash

2018-07-12
CURRENT
J1674_201807
It is intended that these guidelines improve the effectiveness of data collection, which will assist subsequent analysis and reconstruction of a particular crash. This document is intended to guide early data collectors whose objectives include documenting information related to the crash.
Technical Paper

Using Marine Engine Control Units in the Investigation of Watercraft Collision Incidents - Mercury Verado Outboard Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-0499
In more recent publications, it has been recognized that Event Data Recorder (EDR) technology incorporated into various Electronic Control Units (ECUs) used in automotive applications can be beneficial to collision investigation and reconstruction. These devices record data surrounding diagnostic occurrences, airbag deployments, and, with respect to some heavy vehicles, “last stop” and/or “sudden deceleration” events. ...The results of this research suggest that marine ECUs can be beneficial to accident investigation by recording specific engine parameters and operator inputs immediately prior to a collision incident.
Book

Data Acquisition from Light-Duty Vehicles Using OBD and CAN

2018-11-15
This in-vehicle network provides a data opportunity for improved maintenance, fleet management, warranty and legal issues, reliability, and accident reconstruction. Data Acquisition from Light-Duty Vehicles Using OBD and CAN is a guide for the reader on how to acquire and correctly interpret data from the in-vehicle network of light-duty (LD) vehicles.
Book

Integrated Automotive Safety Handbook

2013-10-08
New technologies in sensors and electronic control units, and the growing knowledge of car-to-car and car-to-infrastructure technologies have led to a fusion of the previously separated areas of accident avoidance (popularly known as active safety) and mitigation of injuries (popularly known as passive safety) into the newer concept of integrated vehicle safety. ...This new approach represents a further step toward lowering accident rates. This book, written by two of the foremost automotive engineering safety experts, takes a unique and comprehensive approach to describing all areas of vehicle safety: accident avoidance, pre-crash, mitigation of injuries, and post-crash technologies, providing a solutions-based perspective of integrated vehicle safety. ...This book, written by two of the foremost automotive engineering safety experts, takes a unique and comprehensive approach to describing all areas of vehicle safety: accident avoidance, pre-crash, mitigation of injuries, and post-crash technologies, providing a solutions-based perspective of integrated vehicle safety.
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