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Technical Paper

The Mechanism of Hissing Noise in the Automotive Cabin and Countermeasures for its Reduction

2019-06-05
2019-01-1474
The automotive refrigerant system can occasionally exhibit an excessive noise out of air-conditioner (A/C) vents during vehicle’s developments. If the vehicle has been parked for long hours in summer and the A/C system is turned on, sometimes hissing noise is induced by the refrigerant flow. In order to understand the mechanism, a lot of bench and vehicle tests were conducted. However, there is still not enough to understand the physical behavior in detail. Therefore, for the first step, the visualization method to capture the behavior of multi-phased refrigerant flow jet inside the pipe was proposed with a high-speed camera, some light devices and acrylic test piece. In addition, image analysis to quantify the flow regime from a series of observed snapshots. Using proposed method, the correlation study between flow and noise was performed at A/C bench test. As a result, different flow features such as the velocity can be observed in the occurrence of the noise or not.
Technical Paper

Multi Attribute Balancing of NVH, Vehicle Energy Management and Drivability at Early Design Stage Using 1D System Simulation Model

2019-01-09
2019-26-0178
Improving fuel efficiency often affects NVH performance. Modifying a vehicle’s design in the latter stages of development to improve NVH performance is often costly. Therefore, to optimize the cost performance, a Multi-Attribute Balancing (MAB) approach should be employed in the early design phases. This paper proposes a solution based on a unified 1D system simulation model across different vehicle performance areas. In the scope of this paper the following attributes are studied: Fuel economy, Booming, Idle, Engine start and Drivability. The challenges to be solved by 1D simulation are the vehicle performance predictions, taking into account the computation time and accuracy. Early phase studies require a large number of scenarios to evaluate multiple possible parameter combinations employing a multi-attribute approach with a systematic tool to ease setup and evaluation according to the determined performance metrics.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical and Scaling Basis for Frontal and Side Impact Injury Assessment Reference Values

2016-11-07
2016-22-0018
In 1983, General Motors Corporation (GM) petitioned the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to allow the use of the biofidelic Hybrid III midsize adult male dummy as an alternate test device for FMVSS 208 compliance testing of frontal impact, passive restraint systems. To support their petition, GM made public to the international automotive community the limit values that they imposed on the Hybrid III measurements, which were called Injury Assessment Reference Values (IARVs). During the past 20 years, these IARVs have been updated based on relevant biomechanical studies that have been published and scaled to provide IARVs for the Hybrid III and CRABI families of frontal impact dummies. Limit values have also been developed for the biofidelic side impact dummies, BioSID, ES-2 and SID-IIs.
Technical Paper

Thoracic Injury Risk Curves for Rib Deflections of the SID-IIs Build Level D

2016-11-07
2016-22-0016
Injury risk curves for SID-IIs thorax and abdomen rib deflections proposed for future NCAP side impact evaluations were developed from tests conducted with the SID-IIs FRG. Since the floating rib guide is known to reduce the magnitude of the peak rib deflections, injury risk curves developed from SID-IIs FRG data are not appropriate for use with SID-IIs build level D. PMHS injury data from three series of sled tests and one series of whole-body drop tests are paired with thoracic rib deflections from equivalent tests with SID-IIs build level D. Where possible, the rib deflections of SID-IIs build level D were scaled to adjust for differences in impact velocity between the PMHS and SID-IIs tests. Injury risk curves developed by the Mertz-Weber modified median rank method are presented and compared to risk curves developed by other parametric and non-parametric methods.
Technical Paper

Age-Specific Injury Risk Curves for Distributed, Anterior Thoracic Loading of Various Sizes of Adults Based on Sternal Deflections

2016-11-07
2016-22-0001
Injury Risk Curves are developed from cadaver data for sternal deflections produced by anterior, distributed chest loads for a 25, 45, 55, 65 and 75 year-old Small Female, Mid-Size Male and Large Male based on the variations of bone strengths with age. These curves show that the risk of AIS ≥ 3 thoracic injury increases with the age of the person. This observation is consistent with NASS data of frontal accidents which shows that older unbelted drivers have a higher risk of AIS ≥ 3 chest injury than younger drivers.
Journal Article

Vehicle Level Brake Drag Target Setting for EPA Fuel Economy Certification

2016-09-18
2016-01-1925
The strong focus on reducing brake drag, driven by a historic ramp-up in global fuel economy and carbon emissions standards, has led to renewed research on brake caliper drag behaviors and how to measure them. However, with the increased knowledge of the range of drag behaviors that a caliper can exhibit comes a particularly vexing problem - how should this complex range of behaviors be represented in the overall road load of the vehicle? What conditions are encountered during coastdown and fuel economy testing, and how should brake drag be measured and represented in these conditions? With the Environmental Protection Agency (amongst other regulating agencies around the world) conducting audit testing, and the requirement that published road load values be repeatable within a specified range during these audits, the importance of answering these questions accurately is elevated. This paper studies these questions, and even offers methodology for addressing them.
Journal Article

CVJ and Knuckle Design Optimization to Protect Inboard Wheel Bearing Seals from Splash

2016-09-18
2016-01-1956
For higher mileage vehicles, noise from contaminant ingress is one of the largest durability issues for wheel bearings. The mileage that wheel bearing sealing issues increase can vary due to multiple factors, such as the level of corrosion for the vehicle and the mating components around the wheel bearing. In general, sealing issues increase after 20,000 to 30,000 km. Protecting the seals from splash is a key step in extending bearing life. Benchmarking has shown a variety of different brake corner designs to protect the bearing from splash. This report examines the effect of factors from different designs, such as the radial gap between constant velocity joint (CVJ) slinger and the knuckle, knuckle labyrinth height and varying slinger designs to minimize the amount of splash to the bearing inboard seal. This report reviews some of the bearing seal failure modes caused by splash.
Technical Paper

Disc Brake Pad Corrosion Adhesion: Test-to-Field Issue Correlation, and Exploration of Friction Physical Properties Influence to Adhesion Break-Away Force

2016-09-18
2016-01-1926
Brake pad to rotor adhesion following exposure to corrosive environments, commonly referred to as “stiction”, continues to present braking engineers with challenges in predicting issues in early phases of development and in resolution once the condition has been identified. The goal of this study took on two parts - first to explore trends in field stiction data and how testing methods can be adapted to better replicate the vehicle issue at the component level, and second to explore the impacts of various brake pad physical properties variation on stiction propensity via a controlled design of experiments. Part one will involve comparison of various production hardware configurations on component level stiction tests with different levels of prior braking experience to evaluate conditioning effects on stiction breakaway force.
Technical Paper

1D Modeling of Thermal Expansion Valve for the Assessment of Refrigerant-Induced Noise

2016-04-05
2016-01-1295
Without engine noise, the cabin of an electric vehicle is quiet, but on the other hand, it becomes easy to perceive refrigerant-induced noise in the automotive air-conditioning (A/C) system. When determining the A/C system at the design stage, it is crucial to verify whether refrigerant-induced noise occurs in the system or not before the real A/C systems are made. If refrigerant-induced noise almost never occurs during the design stage, it is difficult to evaluate by vehicle testing at the development stage. This paper presents a 1D modeling methodology for the assessment of refrigerant-induced noise such as self-excitation noise generated by pressure pulsation through the thermal expansion valve (TXV). The GT-SUITE commercial code was used to develop a refrigerant cycle model consisting of a compressor, condenser, evaporator, TXV and the connecting pipe network.
Technical Paper

Development of Momentum Source Model of Vehicle Turbocharger Turbine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0210
Recently, the evaluation of the thermal environment of an engine compartment has become more difficult because of the increased employment and installation of turbochargers. This paper proposes a new prediction model of the momentum source for the turbine of a turbocharger, which is applicable to three-dimensional thermal fluid analyses of vehicle exhaust systems during the actual vehicle development phase. Taking the computational cost into account, the fluid force given by the turbine blades is imitated by adding an external source term to the Navier-Stokes equations corresponding to the optional domain without the computational grids of the actual blades. The mass flow rate through the turbine, blade angle, and number of blade revolutions are used as input data, and then the source is calculated to satisfy the law of the conservation of angular momentum.
Technical Paper

A Reduced Order Turbo-Charging Model for Real Time Engine Torque Profile Control

2015-11-17
2015-32-0766
Torque profile control is one of required technologies for propulsion engines. A smaller parametric model is more preferable for control algorithm design and evaluation. Mean value engine torque can be obtained from throttle opening change using a transfer function. A transfer function for a turbocharged engine was investigated with thermo-dynamic equations for a turbine and a compressor and test data. A small turbocharged engine was tested to model the air transfer process. Turbine speed was measured with temperatures, pressures and air mass flow. Turbine speed response is like a first order system to air mass flow into a combustion chamber. The pressure ratio at the compressor is approximated by a curve proportional to the turbine speed square. Based on those findings, a reduced order model for describing dynamic air transfer process with a turbocharger was constructed. The proposed model is compact and suitable for engine torque control design and controller implementation.
Technical Paper

A Reduced Order Model for a Passenger Car Turbo Charging System and Application to Engine Output Torque Profile Control

2015-09-01
2015-01-1981
Downsizing engines with a turbocharging system have been widely applied to passenger cars to improve fuel economy. Engine torque response to accelerator operation is one of important features in addition to steady state performance of the system. Torque profile management for turbocharged internal combustion engines is one of required technologies. A turbocharging system for a car is a system with a positive feedback loop in which compressed air drives the compressor after the combustion process. A reduced order model was derived for the charging system. Pressure ratio of a compressor is proportional to square of turbine speed and the turbine speed is a first order delay system to throttle opening in the model. Model structure was designed from mathematical equations that describe turbine and compressor works. Model parameters were identified from measured data. An output torque profile control strategy based on the derived model is investigated.
Journal Article

A Study on Knocking Prediction Improvement Using Chemical Reaction Calculation

2015-09-01
2015-01-1905
Compression ratio of newly developed gasoline engines has been increased in order to improve fuel efficiency. But in-cylinder pressure around top dead center (TDC) before spark ignition timing is higher than expectation, because the low temperature oxidization (LTO) generates some heat. The overview of introduced calculation method taking account of the LTO heat of unburned gas, how in-cylinder pressure is revised and some knowledge of knocking prediction using chemical kinetics are shown in this paper.
Technical Paper

A Study on Practical Use of Diesel Combustion Calculation and Development of Automatic Optimizing Calculation System

2015-09-01
2015-01-1845
A KIVA code which is customized for passenger car's diesel engines is linked with an engine performance simulator and demonstrated with our optimizing calculation system. Aiming to fulfill our target calculation speed, the combustion model of the KIVA code is changed from a chemical reaction calculation method to a chemical equilibrium calculation method which is introduced a unique technique handling chemical species maps. Those maps contain equilibrium mole fraction data of chemical species according to equivalence ratio and temperature. Linking the KIVA code to the engine simulator helps to evaluate engine performance by indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). The optimizing calculation system enables to obtain response surfaces. Observing the response surfaces, clear views of engine performance characteristics can be seen. The overview of this calculation system and some examples of the calculation are shown in this paper.
Technical Paper

Cabin Air Humidity Model and its Application

2015-04-14
2015-01-0369
In addition to the thermal comfort of the vehicle occupants, their safety by ensuring adequate visibility is an objective of the automotive climate control system. An integrated dew point and glass temperature sensor is widely used among several other technologies to detect risk of fog formation on the cabin side (or inner) surface of the windshield. The erroneous information from a sensor such as the measurement lag can cause imperfect visibility due to the delayed response of the climate control system. Also the high value, low cost vehicles may not have this sensor due to its high cost. A differential equation based model of the cabin air humidity is proposed to calculate in real-time specific humidity of the passenger compartment air. The specific humidity is used along with the windshield surface temperature to determine relative humidity of air and therefore, the risk of fog formation on the interior surface of a windshield.
Technical Paper

Least-Enthalpy Based Control of Cabin Air Recirculation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0372
The vehicle air-conditioning system has significant impact on fuel economy and range of electric vehicles. Improving the fuel economy of vehicles therefore demand for energy efficient climate control systems. Also the emissions regulations motivate the reduced use of fuel for vehicle's cabin climate control. Solar heat gain of the passenger compartment by greenhouse effect is generally treated as the peak thermal load of the climate control system. Although the use of advanced glazing is considered first to reduce solar heat gain other means such as ventilation of parked car and recirculation of cabin air also have impetus for reducing the climate control loads.
Journal Article

Power Dense and Robust Traction Power Inverter for the Second-Generation Chevrolet Volt Extended-Range EV

2015-04-14
2015-01-1201
The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle with extended-range that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on engine power after depletion of the battery charge. First generation Chevrolet Volts were driven over half a billion miles in North America from October 2013 through September 2014, 74% of which were all-electric [1, 12]. For 2016, GM has developed the second-generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. By significantly re-engineering the traction power inverter module (TPIM) for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle (EREV), we were able to meet all performance targets while maintaining extremely high reliability and environmental robustness. The power switch was re-designed to achieve efficiency targets and meet thermal challenges. A novel cooling approach enables high power density while maintaining a very high overall conversion efficiency.
Journal Article

Fast and Efficient Detection of Shading of the Objects

2015-04-14
2015-01-0371
The human thermal comfort, which has been a subject of extensive research, is a principal objective of the automotive climate control system. Applying the results of research studies to the practical problems require quantitative information of the thermal environment in the passenger compartment of a vehicle. The exposure to solar radiation is known to alter the thermal environment in the passenger compartment. A photovoltaic-cell based sensor is commonly used in the automotive climate control system to measure the solar radiation exposure of the passenger compartment of a vehicle. The erroneous information from a sensor however can cause thermal discomfort to the occupants. The erroneous measurement can be due to physical or environmental parameters. Shading of a solar sensor due to the opaque vehicle body elements is one such environmental parameter that is known to give incorrect measurement.
Technical Paper

Scenario Analysis of Near-miss Incidents to Enhance Pedestrian Collision Warning System

2015-03-10
2015-01-0032
First, this paper focuses on classification of near-miss incidents with pedestrian into typical scenarios, and then incident data are analyzed under the assumption that pedestrian detection system has a pre-determinant sensing performance. The data of 220 near-miss incidents with pedestrian when own vehicle goes straight are employed. We proposed a set of eight scenarios which structure is not necessarily hierarchical. The eight scenarios cover about 75% of the incidents. To highlight the characteristics of the eight scenarios, two kinds of vector-diagrams are introduced which illustrate the transition of relative position between pedestrian and own-vehicle, and TTC-TTV (Time To Collision - Time To Vehicle) relation respectively. For example, in a relative position diagram, we can grasp the pedestrian's relative position which the detection system finds the pedestrian first when he/she appeared with pre-determinant wide detection angle.
Technical Paper

Investigation for the Effect of the External Noise Sources onto the Interior Aerodynamic Noise

2013-04-08
2013-01-1257
To research the mechanism of automobile aerodynamic noise which transmits to the inside of a cabin, flow structure and sound field have been investigated by applying experimental measurements at the wind tunnel and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based on lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). In this research, transmitted noise at a front side window glass is focused. Pressure fluctuations on the side window glass contain both hydrodynamic pressure fluctuations induced by convection of flow field and acoustic pressure fluctuations propagated from noise sources. But it was found that acoustic pressure fluctuations have large contributions on the side window glass at the high frequency range by considering of the experimental transmission loss. On the other hand, at the low frequency range, hydrodynamic pressure fluctuations are dominant, however their effects to transmitted noise are not so influential for high fluctuation levels.
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