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Technical Paper

Study on Combustion Chamber Geometry Effects in an HCCI Engine Using High-Speed Cycle-Resolved Chemiluminescence Imaging

The aim of this study is to see how geometry generated turbulence affects the Rate of Heat Release (ROHR) in an HCCI engine. HCCI combustion is limited in load due to high peak pressures and too fast combustion. If the speed of combustion can be decreased the load range can be extended. Therefore two different combustion chamber geometries were investigated, one with a disc shape and one with a square bowl in piston. The later one provokes squish-generated gas flow into the bowl causing turbulence. The disc shaped combustion chamber was used as a reference case. Combustion duration and ROHR were studied using heat release analysis. A Scania D12 Diesel engine, converted to port injected HCCI with ethanol was used for the experiments. An engine speed of 1200 rpm was applied throughout the tests. The effect of air/fuel ratio and combustion phasing was also studied.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection and Mean Swirl Effects on Combustion and Soot Formation in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

High-speed video imaging in a swirl-supported (Rs = 1.7), direct-injection heavy-duty diesel engine operated with moderate-to-high EGR rates reveals a distinct correlation between the spatial distribution of luminous soot and mean flow vorticity in the horizontal plane. The temporal behavior of the experimental images, as well as the results of multi-dimensional numerical simulations, show that this soot-vorticity correlation is caused by the presence of a greater amount of soot on the windward side of the jet. The simulations indicate that while flow swirl can influence pre-ignition mixing processes as well as post-combustion soot oxidation processes, interactions between the swirl and the heat release can also influence mixing processes. Without swirl, combustion-generated gas flows influence mixing on both sides of the jet equally. In the presence of swirl, the heat release occurs on the leeward side of the fuel sprays.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Real Time NOx Model for Conventional and Partially Premixed Diesel Combustion

A previously presented robust and fast diagnostic NOx model was modified into a predictive model. This was done by using simple yet physically-based models for fuel injection, ignition delay, premixed heat release rate and diffusion combustion heat release rate. The model can be used both for traditional high temperature combustion and for high-EGR low temperature combustion. It was possible to maintain a high accuracy and calculation speed of the NOx model itself. The root mean square of the relative model error is 16 % and the calculation speed is around one second on a PC. Combustion characteristics such as ignition delay, CA50 and the general shape of the heat release rate are well predicted by the combustion model. The model is aimed at real time NOx calculation and optimization in a vehicle on the road.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Partially Premixed Combustion

Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) provides the potential of simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot for diesel engines. This work attempts to characterize the operating range and conditions required for PPC. The characterization is based on the evaluation of emission and in-cylinder measurement data of engine experiments. It is shown that the combination of low compression ratio, high EGR rate and engine operation close to stoichiometric conditions enables simultaneous NOx and soot reduction at loads of 8bar, 12bar, and 15bar IMEP gross. The departure from the conventional NOx-soot trade-off curve has to be paid with a decline in combustion efficiency and a rise in HC and CO emissions. It is shown that the low soot levels of PPC come along with long ignition delay and low combustion temperature. A further result of this work is that higher inlet pressure broadens the operating range of Partially Premixed Combustion.
Technical Paper

A Real Time NOx Model for Conventional and Partially Premixed Diesel Combustion

In this paper a fast NOx model is presented which can be used for engine optimization, aftertreatment control or virtual mapping. A cylinder pressure trace is required as input data. High calculation speed is obtained by using table interpolation to calculate equilibrium temperatures and species concentrations. Test data from a single-cylinder engine and from a complete six-cylinder engine have been used for calibration and validation of the model. The model produces results of good agreement with emission measurements using approximately 50 combustion product zones and a calculation time of one second per engine cycle. Different compression ratios, EGR rates, injection timing, inlet pressures etc. were used in the validation tests.
Technical Paper

Quantification of the Formaldehyde Emissions from Different HCCI Engines Running on a Range of Fuels

In this paper, the formaldehyde emissions from three different types of homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are quantified for a range of fuels by means of Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis. The engines types are differentiated in the way the charge is prepared. The characterized engines are; the conventional port fuel injected one, a type that traps residuals by means of a Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) and finally a Direct Injected (DI) one. Fuels ranging from pure n-heptane to iso-octane via diesel, gasoline, PRF80, methanol and ethanol were characterized. Generally, the amount of formaldehyde found in the exhaust was decreasing with decreasing air/fuel ratio, advanced timing and increasing cycle temperature. It was found that increasing the source of formaldehyde i.e. the ratio of heat released in the cool-flame, brought on higher exhaust contents of formaldehyde.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous PLIF Measurements for Visualization of Formaldehyde- and Fuel- Distributions in a DI HCCI Engine

Simultaneous laser induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging of formaldehyde and a fuel-tracer have been performed in a direct-injection HCCI engine. A mix of N-heptane and iso-octane was used as fuel and Toluene as fluorescent tracer. The experimental setup involves two pulsed Nd:YAG lasers and two ICCD cameras. Frequency quadrupled laser radiation at 266 nm from one of the Nd:YAG lasers was used for excitation of the fuel tracer. The resulting fluorescence was detected with one of the ICCD cameras in the spectral region 270-320 nm. The second laser system provided frequency tripled radiation at 355 nm for excitation of Formaldehyde. Detection in the range 395-500 nm was achieved with the second ICCD. The aim of the presented work is to investigate the applicability of utilizing formaldehyde as a naturally occurring fuel marker. Formaldehyde is formed in the low temperature reactions (LTR) prior to the main combustion and should thus be present were fuel is located until it is consumed.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Formaldehyde and Fuel-Tracer LIF Imaging in a High-Speed Diesel Engine With Optically Accessible Realistic Combustion Chamber

Simultaneous laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging of formaldehyde and a fuel-tracer have been performed in a high-speed diesel engine. N-heptane and isooctane were used as fuel and toluene was used as a tracer. This arrangement made it possible to make simultaneous measurements of toluene by exciting at 266 nm and detecting at 270-320 nm while exciting formaldehyde at 355 nm and detecting at 400-500 nm. The aim of this study is to investigate how traditional fuel tracer and natural-occurring formaldehyde formed in the cool chemistry are transported in the piston bowl. A range of ignition delays were created by running the engine with different amounts of EGR. During this sweep the area where the low-temperature reactions take place were studied. The measurements were performed in a 0.5-l, single-cylinder optical engine running under conditions simulating a cruise-point, i.e., about 2.2 bar imep.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Ion Current in an HCCI Engine

An interest in measuring ion current in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines arises when one wants to use a cheaper probe for feedback of the combustion timing than expensive piezo electric pressure transducers. However the location of the ion current probe, in this case a spark plug, is of importance for both signal strength and the crank angle position where the signal is obtained. Different fuels will probably affect the ion current in both signal strength and timing and this is the main interest of this investigation. The measurements were performed on a Scania D12 engine in single cylinder operation and ion current was measured at 7 locations simultaneously. By arranging this setup there was a possibility to investigate if the ion current signals from the different spark plug locations would correlate with the fact that, for this particular engine, the combustion starts at the walls and propagates towards the centre of the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

An Air Hybrid for High Power Absorption and Discharge

An air hybrid is a vehicle with an ICE modified to also work as an air compressor and air motor. The engine is connected to two air reservoirs, normally the atmosphere and a high pressure tank. The main benefit of such a system is the possibility to make use of the kinetic energy of the vehicle otherwise lost when braking. The main difference between the air hybrid developed in this paper and earlier air hybrid concepts is the introduction of a pressure tank that substitutes the atmosphere as supplier of low air pressure. By this modification, a very high torque can be achieved in compressor mode as well as in air motor mode. A model of an air hybrid with two air tanks was created using the engine simulation code GT-Power. The results from the simulations were combined with a driving cycle to estimate the reduction in fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Start of Injection Strategies for HCCI-combustion

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) has a great potential for low NOx emissions but problems with emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (HC). One way of reducing the HC is to use direct injection. The purpose of this paper is to present experimental data on the trade off between NOx and HC. Injection timing, injection pressure and nozzle configuration all effect homogeneity of the mixture and thus the NOx and HC emissions. The engine studied is a single cylinder version of a Scania D12 that represents a modern heavy-duty truck size engine. A common rail (CR) system has been used to control injection pressure and timing. The combustion using injectors with different nozzle hole diameters and spray angle, both colliding and non-colliding, has been studied. The NOx emission level changes with start of injection (SOI) and the levels are low for early injection timing, increasing with retarded SOI. Different injectors produce different NOx levels.
Technical Paper

Multiple Point Ion Current Diagnostics in an HCCI Engine

Interest in ion current sensing for HCCI combustion arises when a feedback signal from some sort of combustion sensor is needed in order to determine the state of the combustion process. A previous study has revealed that ion current sensors in the form of spark plugs can be used instead of expensive piezoelectric transducers for HCCI combustion sensing. Sufficiently high ion current levels were achieved when using relatively rich mixtures diluted with EGR. The study also shows that it is not the actual dilution per se but the actual air/fuel equivalence ratio which is important for the signal level. Conclusions were made that it is possible to obtain information on combustion timing and oscillating wave phenomena from the measurements. However, the study showed that the ion current is local compared to the pressure which is global in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Combustion Chamber Geometry on HCCI Operation

The effect of the combustion chamber geometry and the turbulence on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) operation has been experimentally investigated. A high turbulent square bowl in piston combustion chamber has been compared with a low turbulent disc combustion chamber. The results showed that the combustion chamber geometry plays large role for HCCI combustion. At the same operating conditions, the peak combustion rate for the square bowl combustion chamber was much lower compared to the disc combustion chamber. The combustion duration was in some cases almost a factor two longer for the square bowl combustion chamber. The lower combustion rate with the square bowl was due larger heat losses, lower combustion efficiency and higher turbulence.
Technical Paper

The HCCI Combustion Process in a Single Cycle - Speed Fuel Tracer LIF and Chemiluminescence Imaging

The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion progress has been characterized by means of high-speed fuel tracer Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) combined with simultaneous chemiluminescence imaging. Imaging has been conducted using a high-speed laser and detector system. The system can acquire a sequence of eight images within less than one crank angle. The engine was run at 1200 rpm on iso-octane or ethanol and a slight amount of acetone was added as a fuel tracer, providing a marker for the unburned areas. The PLIF sequences showed that, during the first stage of combustion, a well distributed decay of fuel concentration occurs. During the later parts of the combustion process the fuel concentration images present much more structure, with distinct edges between islands of unburned fuel and products.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Piston Topland Geometry on Emissions of Unburned Hydrocarbons from a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine

The effect of crevice volumes on the emissions of unburned hydrocarbons from a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has been experimentally investigated. By varying the size and the geometry of the largest crevice, the piston topland, it was possible to ascertain whether or not crevices are the largest source of HC. Additionally, information on quenching distances for ultra lean mixtures was obtained. The tests were performed on a single cylinder engine fuelled with iso-octane. The results showed that most of the unburned hydrocarbons descend from the crevices. Increasing the topland width to some degree lead to an increase in HC. A further increase in topland width (>1.3 mm) resulted in a reduction of HC when using mixtures richer than λ ≈ 2.8, indicating that some of the mixture trapped in the topland participates in the combustion. In conditions when combustion occurred in the topland, the HC was rather insensitive to the height of the topland.
Technical Paper

Reacting Boundary Layers in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine

An experimental and computational study of the near-wall combustion in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has been conducted by applying laser based diagnostic techniques in combination with numerical modeling. Our major intent was to characterize the combustion in the velocity- and thermal boundary layers. The progress of the combustion was studied by using fuel tracer LIF, the result of which was compared with LDA measurements of the velocity boundary layer along with numerical simulations of the reacting boundary layer. Time resolved images of the PLIF signal were taken and ensemble averaged images were calculated. In the fuel tracer LIF experiments, acetone was seeded into the fuel as a tracer. It is clear from the experiments that a proper set of backgrounds and laser profiles are necessary to resolve the near-wall concentration profiles, even at a qualitative level.
Technical Paper

The Application of Ceramic and Catalytic Coatings to Reduce the Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

An experimental and theoretical study of the effect of thermal barriers and catalytic coatings in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has been conducted. The main intent of the study was to investigate if a thermal barrier or catalytic coating of the wall would support the oxidation of the near-wall unburned hydrocarbons. In addition, the effect of these coatings on thermal efficiency due to changed heat transfer characteristics was investigated. The experimental setup was based on a partially coated combustion chamber. The upper part of the cylinder liner, the piston top including the top land, the valves and the cylinder head were all coated. As a thermal barrier, a coating based on plasma-sprayed Al2O3 was used. The catalytic coating was based on plasma-sprayed ZrO2 doped with Platinum. The two coatings tested were of varying thickness' of 0.15, 0.25 and 0.6 mm. The compression ratio was set to 16.75:1.
Technical Paper

Demonstrating the Multi Fuel Capability of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine with Variable Compression Ratio

The potential of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine with variable compression ratio has been experimentally investigated. The experiments were carried out in a single cylinder engine, equipped with a modified cylinder head. Altering the position of a secondary piston in the cylinder head enabled a change of the compression ratio. The secondary piston was controlled by a hydraulic system, which was operated from the control room. Dual port injection systems were used, which made it possible to change the ratio of two different fuels with the engine running. By mixing iso-octane with octane number 100 and normal heptane with octane number 0, it was possible to obtain any octane rating between 0 and 100. By using an electrical heater for the inlet air, it was possible to adjust the inlet air temperature to a selected value.