Spotlight on Design: Insight features an in-depth look at the latest technology breakthroughs impacting mobility. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. As global concerns about the negative consequences of greenhouse gases on the environment increase, regulatory agencies around the world are taking serious steps to address the issue of tailpipe emissions In the episode Fuel Efficiency: Fuel Economy Testing (12:05), engineers at the EPAs National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory demonstrate how different vehicles are tested for emissions, and AVLs technical team shows how accurate tailpipe emissions can be measured and reported.
Spotlight on Design: Insight features an in-depth look at the latest technology breakthroughs impacting mobility. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. Telematics, the convergence of telecommunications and informatics, uses electronic and computer technology built in to the vehicle to provide vehicle tracking, satellite navigation, wireless technology, and diagnostic information. In the episode Diagnostics and Prognostics: Telematics Deep Dive (8:09), an engineer from Delphis Telematics program discusses the advantages and challenges of telematics devices for the automotive industry, demonstrates the installation of an aftermarket telematics device, and shows how telematics can enhance diagnostics and preventative maintenance.
Spotlight on Design features video interviews and case study segments, focusing on the latest technology breakthroughs. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. In the episode Diagnostics and Prognostics: Proactive Maintenance and Failure Prevention (21:04), Delphi engineers explain how they leverage the growing number of sensors and computing power in vehicles to diagnose and proactively solve emerging mechanical or electronic problems, before a breakdown occurs. This video also looks at the next generation of automotive telematics, with HEM Data demonstrating how in-vehicle data acquisition is used to monitor the inner workings of vehicles.
Spotlight on Design features video interviews and case study segments, focusing on the latest technology breakthroughs. Viewers are virtually taken to labs and research centers to learn how design engineers are enhancing product performance/reliability, reducing cost, improving quality, safety or environmental impact, and achieving regulatory compliance. Fuel efficiency, or simply put, how to get more mileage out of the same amount of fuel has become one of the main goals to be achieved by new automotive technologies in the future, thanks in part to new government regulations. In the episode Fuel Efficiency: Racing toward CAFE 2025 (21:24) AVL engineers show simulation and testing being used to design more fuel efficient vehicles, including the equipment that actually analyzes fuel economy.
Career development is no longer something you focus on in your twenties and are set for life, it is ongoing and constant. New technologies, globalization and the world-wide competition for jobs demand that we continue to grow our skills and knowledge throughout our life. This session will provide you with tools to help you meet this demand as an engineering professional. Participants will create a personal mission statement and set career goals, identify the best way to research new opportunities and build their network while also crafting a personal brand with consistent messaging. Organizer Martha Schanno, SAE International Panelist Caryn Mateer, Transformational Leaders Intl. Kathleen Riley, Transformational Leaders Intl.
This paper presents the first results of an experimental study into a hybrid combustion concept for next-generation heavy-duty diesel engines. In this hybrid concept, at low load operating conditions, the engine is run in Pre-mixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) mode, whereas at high load conventional CI combustion is applied. This study was done with standard diesel fuel on a flexible multi-cylinder heavy-duty test platform. This platform is based on a 12.9 liter, 390 kW heavy-duty diesel engine that is equipped with a combination of a supercharger, a two-stage turbocharging system and low-pressure and high-pressure EGR circuitry. Furthermore, Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) hardware is installed to have sufficient control authority. Dedicated pistons, injector nozzles and VVA cam were selected to enable PCCI combustion for a late DI injection strategy, free of wall-wetting problems.
In order to extend the CAI operation range in 4-stroke mode and maximize the benefit of low fuel consumption and emissions in CAI mode, 2-stroke CAI combustion is revived operating in a GDI engine with poppet valves, where the conventional crankcase scavenging is replaced by boosted scavenging. The CAI combustion is achieved through the inherence of the 2-Stroke operation, which is retaining residual gas. A set of flexible hydraulic valve train was installed on the engine to vary the residual gas fraction under the boosting condition. The effects of spark timing, intake pressure and short-circuiting on 2-stroke CAI combustion and its emissions are investigated and discussed in this paper. Results show the engine could be controlled to achieve CAI operation over a wide range of engine speed and load in the 2-stroke mode because of the flexibility of the electro-hydraulic valvetrain system. Presenter Yan Zhang, Brunel University
Cycle-to-cycle variations of combustion processes strongly affect the emissions, specific fuel consumption as well as work output. Especially Direct Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) engines are very sensitive to cyclic fluctuations within the combustion chamber. Multi-cycle Large Eddy Simulation (LES) based analysis has been used for investigating unsteady effects of spray combustion processes and misfires. A realistic four-stroke DISI internal combustion engine configuration was taken under consideration. The effects of variable spray boundary conditions on spray combustion are discussed first. A qualitative analysis of the intensity of cycle-to-cycle variations of in-cylinder pressure is presented for various combinations of injection parameters and ignition points. Finally, the effect of ignition probability and analysis of misfires are pointed out. The described above processes were discussed in terms of mean and standard deviation of temperature, velocity and pressure.
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech participated in the three-year EcoCAR Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition organized by Argonne National Laboratory, and sponsored by General Motors and the U.S. Department of Energy. The team established goals for the design of a plug-in, range-extended hybrid electric vehicle that meets or exceeds the competition requirements for EcoCAR. The challenge involved designing a crossover SUV powertrain to reduce fuel consumption, petroleum energy use, regulated tailpipe emissions, and well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions. To interface with and control the hybrid powertrain, the team added a Hybrid Vehicle Supervisory Controller, which enacts a torque split control strategy. This paper builds on an earlier paper  that evaluated the petroleum energy use, criteria tailpipe emissions, and greenhouse gas emissions of the Virginia Tech EcoCAR vehicle and control strategy from the 2nd year of the competition.
The Pennsylvania State University is one of 16 North American universities that participated in the EcoCAR advanced vehicle technology competition (http://www.ecocarchallenge.org/). A series-hybrid-electric vehicle based on a General Motors crossover SUV platform has been designed, built and tested for this purpose. The powertrain features a 1.3 L turbodiesel engine running on a B20 fuel system, a 75kW generator directly coupled to the engine and advanced lithium-ion batteries. In this paper, the vehicle architecture and control strategy are detailed and performance predictions (e.g., acceleration, fuel consumption and emissions) are presented. This includes discussion of the development process that led to the selected designs. The predicted performance is compared with data obtained on a chassis dynamometer and during on-road measurements over specified drive cycles. Presenter Shawn Getty
The sustainable use of energy and the reduction of pollutant emissions are main concerns of the automotive industry. In this context, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) offer significant improvements in the efficiency of the propulsion system and allow advanced strategies to reduce pollutant and noise emissions. The paper presents the results of a simulation study that addresses the minimization of fuel consumption, NOx emissions and combustion noise of a medium size passenger car. Such a vehicle has a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. The simulation reproduces real-driver behavior through a dynamic modeling approach and actuates an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM). Typical characteristics of parallel hybrid technologies, such as Stop&Start, regenerative braking and electric power assistance, are implemented via an operating strategy that is based on the reduction of total losses.
The first commercially available plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), the General Motors (GM) Volt, was introduced into the market in mid-December 2010. The Volt uses a series-split powertrain architecture, which provides benefits over the series architecture that typically has been considered for use in electric-range extended vehicles (EREVs). A specialized EREV powertrain, called the Voltec, drives the Volt through its entire range of speed and acceleration with battery power alone and within the limit of battery energy, thereby displacing more fuel with electricity than a PHEV, which characteristically blends electric and engine power together during driving. This paper assesses the benefits and drawbacks of these two different plug-in hybrid electric architectures (series versus series-split) by comparing component sizes, system efficiency, and fuel consumption over urban and highway drive cycles.
In support of the U.S Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program, numerous vehicle technology combinations have been simulated using Autonomie. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) designed and wrote the Autonomie modeling software to serve as a single tool that could be used to meet the requirements of automotive engineering throughout the development process, from modeling to control, offering the ability to quickly compare the performance and fuel efficiency of numerous powertrain configurations. For this study, a multitude of vehicle technology combinations were simulated for many different vehicles classes and configurations, which included conventional, power split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), power split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), extended-range EV (E-REV)-capability PHEV, series fuel cell, and battery electric vehicle.
This study undertakes an investigation of the effect of battery charge balance in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) on EPA fuel economy label values. EPA's updated method was fully implemented in 2011 and uses equations which weight the contributions of fuel consumption results from multiple dynamometer tests to synthesize city and highway estimates that reflect average U.S. driving patterns. For the US06 and UDDS cycles, the test results used in the computation come from individual phases within the overall certification driving cycles. This methodology causes additional complexities for hybrid vehicles, because although they are required to be charge-balanced over the course of a full drive cycle, they may have net charge or discharge within the individual phases. As a result, the fuel consumption value used in the label value calculation can be skewed.
DSM will present various application solutions in High Performance Plastics enabling to significant weight or friction reduction and thus to reduced fuel consumption and/or emission levels, and on top of that to lower system costs. Typical Eco+ Solutions Examples to be presented are: - Friction Reduction: Nylon 46 in chain tensioners yielding up to 1 % fuel reduction - Weight Reduction (metal-to-plastic conversion): Nylon 46 with long term temperature resistance upto 230 C in turbo components, Nylon 6 in oil pans/sumps, PET in plastic precision parts, Nylon 46 in gears, many other examples - Electrification: Nylon 46 in start/stop and e-motor components, TPC in HV cables - System Cost optimization: High Flow PA6 in various components, TPC in Brake Tubes - Improved LCA: biobased materials as PA410 and TPC-Eco Typical Application Solutions concern: air induction systems, engine and transmission components, electrical systems, structural&safety parts.
The worldwide drive to improved energy efficiency for engine systems is being supported by several engine R&D programs at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). This research includes large programs in major-market engine categories, such as heavy-duty, non-road, and light-duty; and includes diesel, gasoline, and alternative fuel aspects. This presentation describes several key diesel engine programs being pursued under the SwRI Clean High Efficiency Diesel Engine consortium (CHEDE-VI), whose goal is to demonstrate future diesel technology exceeding 50% brake thermal efficiency. Additionally, SwRI?s High Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engines consortium (HEDGE-II), is reviewed, where advanced technology for ultra-high efficiency gasoline engines is being demonstrated. The HEDGE-II program is built upon dilute gasoline engine research, where brake thermal efficiencies in excess of 42% are being obtained for engines applicable to the light-duty market. Presenter Charles E.
Combustion engines are typically only 20-30% efficient at part-load operating conditions, resulting in poor fuel economy on average. To address this, LiquidPiston has developed an improved thermodynamics cycle, called the High-Efficiency Hybrid Cycle (HEHC), which optimizes each process (stroke) of the engine operation, with the aim of maximizing fuel efficiency. The cycle consists of: 1) a high compression ratio; 2) constant-volume combustion, and 3) over-expansion. At a modest compression ratio of 18:1, this cycle offers an ideal thermodynamic efficiency of 74%. To embody the HEHC cycle, LiquidPiston has developed two very different rotary engine architectures ? called the ?M? and ?X? engines. These rotary engine architectures offer flexibility in executing the thermodynamics cycle, and also result in a very compact package. In this talk, I will present recent results in the development of the LiquidPiston engines. The company is currently testing 20 and 40 HP versions of the ?M?
Historically, the opposed-piston, two-stroke (OP2S) diesel engine set combined records for fuel efficiency and power density that have yet to be met by any other engine type. However, with modern emissions standards, wide-spread development of this engine for on-highway use stopped. At Achates Power, state-of-the-art analytical tools and engineering methods have produced an OP2S engine that, when compared to a leading medium-duty engine, has demonstrated a 21% fuel efficiency gain and engine-out emissions levels meeting U.S. EPA10 with conventional after-treatment. Among the presentation topics covered are thermodynamic efficiency, demonstrated engine results, cost and weight advantages, and overcoming two-stroke engine challenges. Presenter David Johnson, Achates Power Inc.