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Technical Paper

Mechanism of Improving Fuel Efficiency by Miller Cycle and Its Future Prospect

1995-02-01
950974
We have introduced a supercharged Miller Cycle gasoline engine into the market in 1993 as an answer to the requirement of reduction in CO2 emission of vehicles. Improvement in the fuel economy of a supercharged Miller Cycle engine is achieved by the reduction of friction loss due to a smaller displacement. The biggest problem of a conventional supercharged engine is knocking. In order to avoid the knocking, lower compression ratio, which accompanies lower expansion ratio, has been adopted by the conventonal engines and achieved insufficient fuel economy improvement. The Miller Cycle obtains superior anti-knocking performance as well as lowering compression ratio, while keeping the high expansion ratio. The decreased friction loss by the smaller displacement has completely lead to the improvement of fuel economy.
Technical Paper

The Characteristics of Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of the Side Exhaust Port Rotary Engine

1995-02-01
950454
Mazda has been pursuing the research of side exhaust porting for its rotary engine in an effort to improve the engine's fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions characteristics. The side exhaust porting configuration provides greater flexibility in setting port timing and shape, as compared to the peripheral exhaust porting configuration, which is in use in the current-generation rotary engines; the side exhaust porting configuration enables the selection of a port timing more favorable to reduced fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The side exhaust port rotary engine used in this research has its exhaust port closure timing around the top dead center (TDC) and has no intake-exhaust timing overlap. As a result, burnt gasses entering the next cycle of combustion are reduced, thus enhancing combustion stability; also, the air-fuel ratio can be set leaner for improved fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Mazda 4-Rotor Rotary Engine for the Le Mans 24-Hour Endurance Race

1992-02-01
920309
The “R26B” 4-rotor rotary engine is a powerplant that brought a Mazda racing car to victory in the 1991 Le Mans 24-hour endurance race. This engine was developed to achieve high levels of power output, fuel efficiency, and reliability, as required of endurance racing engines. This paper describes the basic structure of the engine, including a 3-piece eccentric shaft that represents a major technological achievement incorporated in the engine, as well as other technological innovations employed for the enhancement of the engine's power output and reliability, and for reducing its fuel consumption. These innovations include a telescopic intake manifold system, peripheral port injection, 3-plug ignition system, 2-piece ceramic apex seal, and a cermet coating on the rubbed surfaces of the housings.
Technical Paper

Real World Performance of an Onboard Gasoline/Ethanol Separation System to Enable Knock Suppression Using an Octane-On-Demand Fuel System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0879
Higher compression ratio and turbocharging, with engine downsizing can enable significant gains in fuel economy but require engine operating conditions that cause engine knock under high load. Engine knock can be avoided by supplying higher-octane fuel under such high load conditions. This study builds on previous MIT papers investigating Octane-On-Demand (OOD) to enable a higher efficiency, higher-boost higher compression-ratio engine. The high-octane fuel for OOD can be obtained through On-Board-Separation (OBS) of alcohol blended gasoline. Fuel from the primary fuel tank filled with commercially available gasoline that contains 10% by volume ethanol (E10) is separated by an organic membrane pervaporation process that produces a 30 to 90% ethanol fuel blend for use when high octane is needed. In addition to previous work, this paper combines modeling of the OBS system with passenger car and medium-duty truck fuel consumption and octane requirements for various driving cycles.
Technical Paper

New Methodology of Life Cycle Assessment for Clean Energy Vehicle and New Car Model

2011-04-12
2011-01-0851
Mazda announced that all customers who purchase Mazda cars are provided with the joy of driving and excellent environmental and safety performance under slogan of "Sustainable Zoom-Zoom" long-term vision for technology development. The purpose of this study is to develop a new approach of Life Cycle Assessment (abbreviated to LCA) to be applied to clean energy vehicles and new car models. The improvement of both environmental performance, e.g., fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, vehicle weight reduction, and LCA that is a useful methodology to assess the environmental load of automobiles for their lifecycles has become more important. LCA by inventory analysis, for RX-8 Hydrogen RE as a rotary engine vehicle used hydrogen as clean energy, was carried out and disclosed the world for the first time. LCA for new Mazda 5 was carried out as the portfolio of all models, previously only the specific model equipped with fuel efficiency device based on ISO14040.
Technical Paper

A General Method of Life Cycle Assessment

2012-04-16
2012-01-0649
In previous Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methods, environmental burden items to be analyzed, prior to a life cycle inventory analysis, were assumed as the main factors of environmental problems regardless of the product category. Next, the life cycle inventory analysis, in which the total amount of environmental burden items emitted during the life cycle of a product was calculated, and an environmental impact assessment were performed. The environmental impact assessment was based on the initially assumed environmental burden items. The process, in other words, was a particular solution based on this assumption. A general solution unconstrained by this assumption was necessary. The purpose of this study was to develop a general method of LCA that did not require such initially assumed environmental burden items, and to make it possible to perform a comprehensive environmental impact assessment and strategically reduce environmental burden of a product.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Base Oil Viscosity Temperature Dependence For Power Cylinder Friction Reduction

2014-04-01
2014-01-1658
Lubricant viscosity along the engine cylinder liner varies by an order of magnitude due to local temperature variation and vaporization effects. Tremendous potential exists for fuel economy improvement by optimizing local viscosity variations for specific operating conditions. Methods for analytical estimation of friction and wear in the power-cylinder system are reviewed and used to quantify opportunities for improving mechanical efficiency and fuel economy through lubricant formulation tailored specifically to liner temperature distributions. Temperature dependent variations in kinematic viscosity, density, shear thinning, and lubricant composition are investigated. Models incorporating the modified Reynolds equation were used to estimate friction and wear under the top ring and piston skirt of a typical 11.0 liter diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Application of Plasma Welding to Tailor- Welded Blanks

2003-10-27
2003-01-2860
In recent years, improving fuel efficiency and collision safety are important issue. We have worked on a new construction method to develop body structure which is light weight and strong/stiff. We adopt multi type Tailor-Welded Blanks (TWB) which is formed after welding several steel sheets for ATENZA (MAZDA 6), NEW DEMIO (MAZDA 2), and RX-8. This is a technology to consistently improve of such product properties and to reduce costs. Laser welding is a common TWB welding method, but for further equipment cost reductions and productivity improvements, we have developed a higher welding speed and robust plasma welding and introduced this to mass production. We introduce this activity and results in this report.
Journal Article

Design Drivers of Energy-Efficient Transport Aircraft

2011-10-18
2011-01-2495
The fuel energy consumption of subsonic air transportation is examined. The focus is on identification and quantification of fundamental engineering design tradeoffs which drive the design of subsonic tube and wing transport aircraft. The sensitivities of energy efficiency to recent and forecast technology developments are also examined.
Journal Article

Effects of Ethanol Content on Gasohol PFI Engine Wide-Open-Throttle Operation

2009-06-15
2009-01-1907
The NOx emission and knock characteristics of a PFI engine operating on ethanol/gasoline mixtures were assessed at 1500 and 2000 rpm with λ =1 under Wide-Open-Throttle condition. There was no significant charge cooling due to fuel evaporation. The decrease in NOx emission and exhaust temperature could be explained by the change in adiabatic flame temperature of the mixture. The fuel knock resistance improved significantly with the gasohol so that ignition could be timed at a value much closer or at MBT timing. Changing from 0% to 100% ethanol in the fuel, this combustion phasing improvement led to a 20% increase in NIMEP and 8 percentage points in fuel conversion efficiency at 1500 rpm. At 2000 rpm, where knocking was less severe, the improvement was about half (10% increase in NIMEP and 4 percentage points in fuel conversion efficiency).
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