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Training / Education

Fundamental Concepts of Turbocharging Modern Engines Current Practices and Trends

Turbocharging is rapidly becoming an integral part of many internal combustion engine systems. While it has long been a key to diesel engine performance, it is increasingly seen as an enabler in meeting many of the efficiency and performance requirements of modern automotive gasoline engines. This web seminar will discuss the basic concepts of turbocharging and air flow management of four-stroke engines. The course will explore the fundamentals of turbocharging, system design features, performance measures, and matching and selection criteria.
Training / Education

Automotive Heat Transfer

Heat transfer affects the performance, emissions and durability of the engine as well as the design, packaging, material choice and fatigue life of vehicle components. This course covers the broad range of heat transfer considerations that arise during the design and development of the engine and the vehicle with a primary focus on computational models and experimental validation covering the flow of heat from its origin in the engine cylinders and its transfer via multiple paths through engine components.
Training / Education

Race Engine Calibration for Optimal Performance

The engine control module (ECM, or on-board computer) is the tool used to control the fuel injection rate, fuel injection timing, ignition timing, rate of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and other functions. The task of "programming" the ECM is much easier for a race engine than for a production engine because the calibration engineer does not need to be concerned about emissions: EGR, keeping the exhaust catalyst "happy", etc. This course provides a practical introduction to ECMs, including the uses for the various sensors.
Training / Education

Turbocharging for Fuel Economy and Emissions

Turbocharging is already a key part of heavy duty diesel engine technology. However, the need to meet emissions regulations is rapidly driving the use of turbo diesel and turbo gasoline engines for passenger vehicles. Turbocharged diesel engines improve the fuel economy of baseline gasoline engine powered passenger vehicles by 30-50%. Turbocharging is critical for diesel engine performance and for emissions control through a well designed exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. In gasoline engines, turbocharging enables downsizing which improves fuel economy by 5-20%.
Training / Education

The Basics of Internal Combustion Engines

In your profession, an educated understanding of internal combustion engines is required, not optional. This two-day technology survey seminar covers the most relevant topics - ranging from the chemistry of combustion to the kinematics of internal components of the modern internal combustion engine - for maximum comprehension. Attendees will gain a practical, hands-on approach to the basics of the most common designs of internal combustion engines, as they apply to the gaseous cycles, thermodynamics and heat transfer to the major components, and the design theories that embody these concepts.
Training / Education

Internal Combustion Systems HCCI, DoD, VCT/VVT, DI and VCR

Societal and regulatory demands to lower emissions and increase engine-operating efficiencies have forced engine designers to adopt new technologies and control strategies. This has resulted in dramatic evolutions of the technology of internal combustion engines and their support systems in recent years. These operational management strategies have evolved into more robust control systems and sensory packages, which in turn has driven the need for more accurate and specific information being communicated between the various systems found within a modern automobile.
Training / Education

Diesel Engine Technology

As diesel engines become more popular, a fundamental knowledge of diesel technology is critical for anyone involved in the diesel engine support industry. This course will explain the fundamental technology of diesel engines starting with a short but thorough introduction of the diesel combustion cycle, and continue with aspects of engine design, emission control design, and more. An overview of developing technologies for the future with a comprehensive section on exhaust aftertreatment is also included. The text, Diesel Emissions and Their Control, authored by Magdi Khair and W. Addy Majewski is included with the seminar.
Training / Education

Turbocharging Internal Combustion Engines

The need to control emissions and maintain fuel economy is driving the use of advanced turbocharging technology in both diesel and gasoline engines. As the use of diesel engines in passenger car gasoline and diesel engines increases, a greater focus on advanced turbocharging technology is emerging in an effort to reap the benefits obtained from turbocharging and engine downsizing. This seminar covers the basic concepts of turbocharging of gasoline and diesel engines (light and heavy duty), including turbocharger matching and charge air and EGR cooling, as well as associated controls.
Training / Education

Fundamentals of Powertrain Design for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Driven by high fuel prices, environmental regulations, and consumer demand, the market for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) has experienced rapid growth. Every major automotive company produces an HEV. There are approximately fifty different HEV models on the market and over eight million HEVs already sold. In order to meet current and future demands in the HEV and PHEV markets, success will depend on engineering personnel knowing how to develop and manufacture HEV powertrains. This two day seminar will cover the fundamentals of HEV powertrain design.
Training / Education

Control Systems Simplified

The advent of digital computers and the availability of ever cheaper and faster micro processors have brought a tremendous amount of control system applications to the automotive industry in the last two decades. From engine and transmission systems, to virtually all chassis subsystems (brakes, suspensions, and steering), some level of computer control is present. Control systems theory is also being applied to comfort systems such as climate control and safety systems such as cruise control or collision mitigation systems.
Training / Education

Introduction to Commercial and Off-Road Vehicle Cooling Airflow Systems

Vehicle functional requirements, emission regulations, and thermal limits all have a direct impact on the design of a powertrain cooling airflow system. Given the expected increase in emission-related heat rejection, suppliers and vehicle manufacturers must work together as partners in the design, selection, and packaging of cooling system components. An understanding and appreciation of airflow integration issues and vehicle-level trade-offs that effect system performance are important to the team effort. The severe duty cycles, minimal ram air, and sometimes unconventional package layouts present unique challenges.
Training / Education

Variable Valve Actuation Design and Performance Impact on Advanced Powertrains

Engine valvetrain systems have become more capable and increasingly more compact in the quest to improve efficiency. The developments parallel the advancements in other key engine components such as fuel injection or spark systems, turbocharging, aftertreatment, base engine and controls. While the gasoline sector has seen a steady rise in the adoption of Variable Valve Actuation (VVA), Diesel systems have lagged behind and only a few systems have seen production. The level of VVA activity however in the Diesel sector is beginning to increase as tighter regulations of CO2 emissions approach.
Training / Education

Ignition Issues and Their Impact on Engine Performance, Efficiency and Emission

Improved understanding and control of ignition and thereby combustion are critical in dealing with the problems of pollutants formation, engine performance, and fuel economy. This seminar will provide you with basic knowledge and recent advances in combustion-initiation (ignition) issues to more intelligently evaluate and harness their potentials. Thermodynamic and fluid mechanical properties of the unburned charge near the spark plug and at the time of ignition strongly affect the quality of the combustion and therefore the emission of the pollutants from the engine. Furthermore, a weak ignition limits engine performance and drivability.
Technical Paper

Development of Variable Cylinder Management System for Large Motorcycles

The world’s first variable cylinder management system, VCM system, for large motorcycles has been developed. The system uses an in-line four-cylinder, 1 137 cm3 engine as the base, and allows changing of the number of working cylinders from 2-cylinder to 3-cylinder to 4-cylinder. To eliminate an abrupt change of power delivery when shifting number of working cylinders, the electronically-controlled throttle valve (Throttle-By-Wire: TBW) is employed. Coupled with the harmonized control of the intake-and-exhaust valve deactivating system, the smooth switching of number of working cylinders suitable for motorcycles has been realized. As a result, while maintaining the same power output characteristics of the conventional engine, EURO 3 exhaust emission regulations are satisfied while attaining approximately 46% better fuel economy in the New European Driving Cycle mode (NEDC mode).
Technical Paper

Research of Electronically Controlled Throttle System for Large Motorcycles

There are various demands concerning the motorcycle rider’s throttle input such as nonlinearly engine output attribute control and maximum speed control. To realize those demands by electronic control, we mounted the Drive-by-Wire (DBW) throttle system, which is currently being used on existing automobiles, to motorcycles, but the system failed to meet the demands of the motorcycle. Response to the throttle speed change was an issue; therefore, we built up the control system to satisfy the motorcycle’s demand for response by changing the high speed response equation of adaptive sliding mode control and adding the hysteresis property correction equation of the throttle body drive-train. As a result, we could realize response equivalent to that of a mechanical throttle.
Technical Paper

Newly Developed Inline 4 AR Series SI Engine

A newly developed AR series 4-cylinder engine has achieved high fuel efficiency through the following: adopting roller rocker arms for the valvetrain system and a variable output oil pump to reduce the friction losses, optimizing the combustion chamber and its cooling system for high compression ratio, and adopting VVT-i (Variable Valve Timing-intelligent) for both intake and exhaust camshafts to enhance thermal efficiency of the engine. Engine torque has been enhanced across the entire range of engine speeds while high performance at low engine speed is achieved by adopting a variable induction intake manifold system (ACIS-III). Output power has been enhanced by making the intake and exhaust systems highly efficient. A hinge type tumble control valves were developed to improve emissions at low temperature by improving combustion when the engine is cold in order to comply with the U.S. Cold-NMHC.
Technical Paper

Utilizing the Electronic Stability Control Hydraulic Pump to Counteract Brake Pad Knock Back

This paper will explore an innovative solution for counteracting brake pad knock back. Fixed brake caliper applications have a tendency to knock the pads/pistons back into the caliper during high lateral acceleration maneuvers. Knock back causes increased brake pedal travel and even master cylinder run out in the most extreme case. A strategy is developed which uses the standard ESP sensors to deduce when knock back has likely occurred, and then runs the ABS pump to build enough pressure to re-seat the pads. External instrumentation was used to develop correlations between available ESP signals and measured knock back, and between pump behavior and measured movement of the piston. Data acquisition was conducted on numerous closed environments as well as proving out the feature on the racetrack. A method is developed to run the pump only as long as required to reseat the pads. The challenges faced during the industrialization of the feature are also detailed.
Technical Paper

The All New AJV8

This paper describes the design and function of the all new AJV8 engine. The engine is deployed in both naturally aspirated and supercharged form. The 90 degree four valve per cylinder V8, is of all aluminum design and employs a new spray guided direct injection combustion system, with the injectors located centrally within the chamber for more precise fuel control. Intake and exhaust valve timing is varied via four cam torque actuated variable cam timing units. The naturally aspirated derivative employs both two stage inlet valve lift control and two stage inlet manifold tuning to provide excellent low speed torque. This results in superior vehicle dynamic response and fuel economy. The supercharged derivative uses Twin Vortex supercharging technology in combination with the optimized high pressure die cast, deep skirt block structure to deliver a class leading balance of performance and refinement.
Technical Paper

Development of New 1.8-Liter Engine for Hybrid Vehicles

In recent years, attention has been focused on a hybrid vehicle capable of substantial reductions in CO2 exhaust emissions. This paper describes the newly developed 1.8-liter 2ZR-FXE gasoline engine for use with a hybrid system for compact vehicles, which effectively combines higher driving performance with higher fuel efficiency. This engine was based on the 1.8-liter 2ZR-FE engine with outstanding performance and fuel efficiency. This engine has achieved high thermal efficiency by using the high-expansion ratio cycle “Atkinson cycle”, as with the previous 1NZ-FXE engine. Additionally, a new cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system and electric water pump were adopted to further improve fuel efficiency. A high efficiency cooler was used to cool the EGR gas, which enabled the introduction of the EGR gas at high load conditions, and exhaust gas temperature was reduced.
Journal Article

Advanced Control System of Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Engine with Dual Piston Mechanism

A dual piston Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) engine has been newly developed. This compact VCR system uses the inertia force and hydraulic pressure accompanying the reciprocating motion of the piston to raise and lower the outer piston and switches the compression ratio in two stages. For the torque characteristic enhancement and the knocking prevention when the compression ratio is being switched, it is necessary to carry out engine controls based on accurate compression ratio judgment. In order to accurately judge compression ratio switching timing, a control system employing the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) was used to analyze vibration generated during the compression ratio switching. Also, in order to realize smooth torque characteristics, an ignition timing control system that separately controls each cylinder and simultaneously performs knocking control was constructed.