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Technical Paper

Operating Parameter Effects on the Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Natural Gas Fueled Engine

The effects of engine operating parameters on the speciated engine-out hydrocarbon emissions from a natural gas fueled spark ignition 16 valve four-cylinder engine were examined. Total hydrocarbon emissions were dominated by methane, the main component of natural gas. The non-methane hydrocarbons consisted primarily of ethane, ethene, and acetylene. Except for changes in the fuel-air equivalence ratio rich of the stoichiometric condition, emissions of unsaturated species were found to be less sensitive to engine operating parameters than were the fuel components. A single species, ethene, dominated the engine-out hydrocarbon reactivity, accounting for over 80% of the NMHC reactivity.
Technical Paper

Examination of Charge Dilution with EGR to Reduce NOx Emissions from a Natural Gas-Fuelled 16 Valve DOHC Four-Cylinder Engine

Charge dilution is commonly used to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from internal combustion engine exhaust gas. The question of whether to use air or exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) as a charge diluent for the natural gas-fuelled test engine is addressed first. The decision to use EGR is based on the potentially lower NOx and unburned hydrocarbon emissions that could be achieved if a three-way catalyst were applied to the engine. The effect of EGR on the spark advance for maximum brake torque (MBT), NOx, and unburned hydrocarbon emissions is then examined in detail. The effect on fuel efficiency is discussed briefly.
Technical Paper

Effect of Increasing Compression Ratio in a Light-Duty Natural Gas-Fueled Engine on Efficiency and Emissions

As a result of CAFE (corporate average fuel economy) requirements, the trend in passenger car engine design is to smaller displacement engines of higher specific output which provide reductions in vehicle driving cycle fuel consumption without an accompanying decrease in maximum power output. Design features such as four valves per cylinder and compact combustion chambers give these engines significantly different combustion characteristics than traditional pushrod OHV (overhead valve) engines. In general, their combustion chambers are fast burning, enabling the use of higher compression ratios without knock on unleaded gasoline. Since fuel consumption decreases with increasing compression ratio, and since natural gas has a substantially higher octane rating than the best unleaded gasoline, it would appear to be desirable to operate with even higher compression ratios in a dedicated natural gas engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of Closed Loop Fuel Control System Characteristics on Emissions from a Natural Gas-Fueled Engine

Some current aftermarket natural gas closed loop carburetion systems use an integral control strategy to maintain a fuel-air equivalence ratio centered in the peak conversion window of a three-way catalytic converter. Fuel control system performance under steady-state engine operating conditions can be characterized by the time-averaged value of the fuel-air equivalence ratio, the rich and lean excursion limits, and a skewness parameter that represents the non-symmetry of the time varying fuel-air equivalence ratio about the control value (ϕaverage). Using a representative aftermarket feedback control system, the effect of these parameters on the exhaust emissions of a natural-gas fueled four-cylinder engine has been investigated. In addition, the effect of EGO sensor characteristics on control system performance has been examined.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurement of Temperature and Soot Concentration Using the Two-Color Method

Optical fiber probes were used to measure the soot temperature and estimate the soot concentration inside the cylinder of a DI diesel engine. The probes were mounted at various locations on the head of the test engine, and the measurements were performed under different load levels. Using the two-color method, the variations in temperature and soot mass concentration during the combustion process were examined with temporal and spatial resolution. It was observed that soot formation is rapid and is associated with heterogeneity in the early stage of combustion. Moreover, the soot formation mechanism seems to be independent of the engine load. In contrast, soot oxidation is relatively slow. Data obtained at several different load levels are presented, and the effects of various error sources on the accuracy of the measurement technique are also investigated.
Technical Paper

Impact of Powertrain Type on Potential Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions from a Real World Lightweight Glider

This study investigates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a set of vehicles using two real-world gliders (vehicles without powertrains or batteries); a steel-intensive 2013 Ford Fusion glider and a multi material lightweight vehicle (MMLV) glider that utilizes significantly more aluminum and carbon fiber. These gliders are used to develop lightweight and conventional models of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Our results show that the MMLV glider can reduce life cycle GHG emissions despite its use of lightweight materials, which can be carbon intensive to produce, because the glider enables a decrease in fuel (production and use) cycle emissions. However, the fuel savings, and thus life cycle GHG emission reductions, differ substantially depending on powertrain type. Compared to ICVs, the high efficiency of HEVs decreases the potential fuel savings.
Technical Paper

Injection Molded Hybrid Natural Fibre - Thermoplastic Composites for Automotive Interior Parts

Eco-efficient and cost effective natural fibre - thermoplastic composites have gained attention to a great extent in the automotive industry. Most of the OEM specifications for automotive interior parts, for example, instrument panels, recommend the composite should have a minimum flexural modulus of 1900 MPa, a notched Impact strength greater than 150 J/m at room temperature and a melt flow index of 5 g/10min and above [1, 2 and 3]. The objective of this work was to develop a high performance hybrid composite by injection molding process of the composites made from natural fibre in combination with glass fibre or calcium carbonate in a thermoplastic matrix to meet the specifications required for automotive interior parts applications. Mechanical properties, such as tensile and flexural strengths and moduli of the composites prepared, were found to be highly promising.
Technical Paper

Effect of CO2 Content on Foaming Behavior of Recyclable High-Melt-Strength PP

This paper presents an experimental study on the foaming behavior of recyclable high-melt-strength (HMS) branched polypropylene (PP) with CO2 as a blowing agent. The foamability of branched HMS PP has been evaluated using a tandem foaming extruder system. The effects of CO2 and nucleating agent contents on the final foam morphology have been thoroughly investigated. The low density (i.e., 12~14 fold), fine-celled (i.e., 107–109 cells/cm3) PP foams were successfully produced using a small amount of talc (i.e., 0.8 wt%) and 5 wt% CO2.
Technical Paper

Bluff-Body Stabilized Glow Plug Ignition of a Methanol-Fueled IDI Diesel Engine

Methanol, in common with other alternative fuels including natural gas and LPG, has autoignition characteristics which are poorly suited for use in compression ignition engines. Some sort of ignition assist has proven to be necessary. Considerable work has been carried out with hot surface (glow plug) ignition. The geometric relationship between the fuel injection nozzle and the glow plug is critical to achieving high efficiency and low emissions. Moreover, it is difficult to establish a single geometry which provides reliable ignition and stable operation over the entire range of engine speeds and loads. The work described in this paper investigated extending the range of operation of a particular glow plug/fuel injection nozzle geometry by placing the glow plug in the wake of a bluff body. Bluff-body flame stabilization is a well-known technique in continuous combustors. Experiments were carried out in a single-cylinder CFR cetane rating engine fueled with methanol.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of a Natural Gas-Fueled 16 Valve DOHC Four-Cylinder Engine

The increasing use of natural gas as a vehicle fuel has generated considerable research activity to characterize the performance and emissions of engines utilizing this fuel. However, virtually all of the results reported have been for pushrod OHV spark ignition engines or SI conversions of heavy-duty diesel engines. Because of the pressure to improve fuel economy imposed by CAFE requirements, passenger cars are increasingly tending toward high specific output, small displacement engines. These engines employ such features as four valves per cylinder and centrally located spark plugs which give them a different dependence on operating variables than traditional pushrod OHV engines. In this study, experiments were carried out with a two-liter four-cylinder Nissan SR20DE engine representative of modern design practice. The engine was operated on gasoline and natural gas at six different loads and three different speeds. Some tests were also done with isooctane.
Technical Paper

Concurrent Quantitative Laser-Induced Incandescence and SMPS Measurements of EGR Effects on Particulate Emissions from a TDI Diesel Engine

A comparison of scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and laser-induced incandescence (LII) measurements of diesel particulate matter (PM) was performed. The results reveal the significance of the aggregate nature of diesel PM on interpretation of size and volume fraction measurements obtained with an SMPS, and the accuracy of primary particle size measurements by LII. Volume fraction calculations based on the mobility diameter measured by the SMPS substantially over-predict the space-filling volume fraction of the PM. Correction algorithms for the SMPS measurements, to account for the fractal nature of the aggregate morphology, result in a substantial reduction in the reported volume. The behavior of the particulate volume fraction, mean and standard deviation of the mobility diameter, and primary particle size are studied as a function of the EGR for a range of steady-state engine speeds and loads for a turbocharged direct-injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Nano-clay on Extrusion Microcellular Foaming of Nylon

This paper demonstrates the effects of nano-clay on the microcellular foam processing of nylon. First, Nylon 6 nanocomposites with 1 wt% clay were prepared by a twin screw extruder. The nanocomposite structures were characterized by XRD and TEM. Nylon and its nanocomposites were foamed in extrusion using CO2. The cell morphologies of nylon and its nanocomposite foams were investigated. It appeared that the nano-clay not only enhanced cell nucleation, but also suppressed cell deterioration in the microcellular foaming of nylon.
Technical Paper

Engine Operating Parameter Effects on the Speciated Aldehyde and Ketone Emissions from a Natural Gas Fuelled Engine

Measurements were taken of the speciated aldehyde and ketone exhaust emissions from a modern four-cylinder engine fuelled with natural gas. The effect on these emissions of varying the engine operating parameters spark timing, exhaust gas recirculation rate, engine speed, and fuel/air equivalence ratio was examined. The influence of these operating parameters on the complete reactivity-weighted emissions with natural gas fuelling is predicted. With stoichiometric fuel/air mixtures, both the total hydrocarbons and formaldehyde emissions declined with increasing exhaust gas temperature and increasing in-cylinder residence time, suggesting that formaldehyde burn-up in the exhaust process largely controls its emissions levels. Closer examination of the aldehyde emissions shows they follow trends more like those of the non-fuel, intermediate hydrocarbon species ethane and acetylene, than like the trends of the fuel components methane and ethane.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission and Energy Consumption Effects from Hydrogen Supplementation of Natural Gas

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficiency and emissions of an engine fuelled with a mixture of natural gas and approximately 15% hydrogen by volume. This mixture, called Hythane™, was compared with natural gas fuel using engine efficiency and engine-out emissions at various engine operating conditions as the basis of comparison. Throughout most of the experiment, fuel mixtures were slightly rich of stoichiometry. It was found that at low engine loads, using the same spark timing, engine efficiency increased under HythaneTM fuelling but at higher engine loads, natural gas and Hythane™ had the same efficiency. At low engine speed and load conditions with the same spark timing, engine-out total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions were lower for Hythane™ fuelling. When compared on a carbon specific basis, however, natural gas hydrocarbon emissions were lower. At some test conditions, engine-out carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were lower under Hythane™.
Technical Paper

A Phenomenological Model for Soot Formation and Oxidation in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

The concentration of carbonaceous particulate matter in the exhaust of diesel engines depends on the rates of formation and oxidation of soot in the combustion chamber. Soot forms early in the combustion process when local fuel-rich areas exist, whereas soot oxidation occurs later when more air is entrained into the fuel spray. Based on this understanding, a phenomenological combustion model is established. In the model, the cylinder volume is divided into four zones: a rich fuel spray core, a premixed-burning/burned gas zone, a mixing controlled burning zone and a lean air zone. Soot formation takes place in the mixing controlled burning zone where the local C/O ratio is above the critical value. Soot oxidation occurs in the premixed-burning/burned gas zone as air is entrained. By using a quasi-global chemical reaction scheme, the oxidation of soot particles by different species can be investigated.
Technical Paper

Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Modeling with Layered Artificial Neural Network Structures

In order to meet emissions and power requirements, modern engine design has evolved in complexity and control. The cost and time restraints of calibration and testing of various control strategies have made virtual testing environments increasingly popular. Using Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL), Volvo Penta has built a virtual test rig named VIRTEC for efficient engine testing, using a model simulating a fully instrumented engine. This paper presents an innovative Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based model for engine simulations in HiL environment. The engine model, herein called Artificial Neural Network Engine (ANN-E), was built for D8-600 hp Volvo Penta engine, and directly implemented in the VIRTEC system. ANN-E uses a combination of feedforward and recursive ANNs, processing 7 actuator signals from the engine management system (EMS) to provide 30 output signals.
Technical Paper

Cell Nucleation and Growth Study of PP Foaming with CO2 in a Batch-Simulation System

TPO is being used to make automotive parts for its number of advantages: i) low temperature flexibility and ductility, ii) excellent impact/stiffness/flow balance, iii) excellent weatherability, and iv) free-flowing pellet form for easy processing, storage, and handling. However, by foaming TPO, due to its higher rigidity-to-weigh ratio, it would offer additional advantages over the solid counterparts in terms of reduced weight, reduced material cost, and decreased fuel usage without compromising their performance. Since a major component in TPO is polypropylene (PP), understanding PP foaming behaviours is an important step towards understanding TPO foaming. For foam materials, cell density and cell size are two significant parameters that affect their material properties. In this research, we observed the cell nucleation and initial growth behaviours of PP foams blown with CO2 under various experimental conditions in a batch foaming simulation system.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Hydrogen-Fueled Rotary Engine for Hybrid Vehicle Applications

The hydrogen-fueled engine has been identified as a viable power unit for ultra-low emission senes-hybrid vehicles The absence of carbon in hydrogen fuel eliminates exhaust emissions of CO, CO2, and hydrocarbons, with the exception of small contributions from the combustion of lubricating oil Thus, the only regulated emission of a hydrogen-fueled engine is NOx, and the engine may be optimized to minimize NOx since the usual constraint of the NOx -hydrocarbon trade-off is not applicable Hydrogen-fueled homogeneous charge piston engines have, however, generally suffered from a variety of combustion difficulties, most notably a proclivity to ignition on hot surfaces such as exhaust valves, spark plug electrodes and deposits on combustion chamber walls The Wankel engine is particularly well suited to the use of hydrogen fuel, since its design minimizes most of the combustion difficulties In order to evaluate the possibilities offered by the hydrogen fueled rotary engine, dynamometer tests were conducted with a small (2 2kW) Wankel engine fueled with hydrogen Preliminary results show an absence of the combustion difficulties present with hydrogen-fueled homogenous charge piston engines The engine was operated unthrottled and power output was controlled by quality governing, i.e. by varying the fuel-air equivalence ratio on the lean side of stoichiometric The ability to operate with quality governing is made possible by the wide flammability limits of hydrogen-air mixtures NOx emissions are on the order of 5 ppm for power outputs up to 70% of the maximum attainable on hydrogen fuel Thus, by operating with very lean mixtures, which effectively derates the engine, very low NOx emissions can be achieved Since the rotary engine has a characteristically high power to weight ratio and a small volume per unit power compared to the piston engine, operating a rotary engine on hydrogen and derating the power output could yield an engine with extremely low emissions which still has weight and volume characteristics comparable to a gasoline-fueled piston engine Finally, since engine weight and volume affect vehicle design, and consequently in-use vehicle power requirements, those factors, as well as engine efficiency, must be taken into account in evaluating overall hybnd vehicle efficiency
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Operating Variables and Piston and Ring Parameters on Crevice Hydrocarbon Emissions

A study was performed to determine the effects of engine operating variables and piston and ring parameters on the crevice hydrocarbon emissions from a spark-ignition engine. Natural gas was used as the test fuel in an effort to isolate crevice mechanisms as the only major source of unburned hydrocarbons in the test engine's exhaust. The largest of the in-cylinder crevices, the piston ring pack crevices, were modified, both in size and accessibility, by altering the piston top land height and the number of piston rings and their end gaps. Each piston and ring configuration was subjected to a series of test sweeps of engine operating variables known to affect exhaust hydrocarbon emissions. None of the physical crevice modifications had any significant effect on the level of the exhaust hydrocarbon emissions, although the cycle-to-cycle repeatability of these emissions, measured with a fast hydrocarbon analyzer, was found to vary between the different configurations.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Oxygenated Additives on Soot Precursor Formation in a Counterflow Diffusion Flame

A counter–flow propane/air diffusion flame (ϕ= 1.79) is used for a fundamental analysis of the effects of oxygenated additives on soot precursor formation. Experiments are conducted at atmospheric pressure using Gas Chromatography for gas sample analysis. The oxygenated additives dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and ethanol are added to the fuel keeping the total volumetric fuel flow rate constant. Results show 10 vol% DMC significantly reduces acetylene, benzene, and other flame pyrolysis products. Ethanol (10 vol%) shows, instead, more modest reductions. Peak acetylene and benzene levels decrease as the additive dosage increases for both DMC and ethanol. The additive's effect on the adiabatic flame temperature and the fuel stream carbon content does not correlate significantly with acetylene levels. However, there does appear to be a linear relationship between acetylene concentrations and both the additive's oxygen and C–C bond content.