Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Performance Scaling of Spark-Ignition Engines: Correlation and Historical Analysis of Production Engine Data

2000-03-06
2000-01-0565
This study examines the scaling between engine performance, engine configuration, and engine size and geometry, for modern spark-ignition engines. It focuses especially on design features that impact engine breathing. We also analyze historical trends to illustrate how changes in technology have improved engine performance. Different geometric parameters such as cylinder displacement, piston area, number of cylinders, number of valves per cylinder, bore to stroke ratio, and compression ratio, in appropriate combinations, are correlated to engine performance parameters, namely maximum torque, power and brake mean effective pressure, to determine the relationships or scaling laws that best fit the data. Engine specifications from 1999 model year vehicles sold in the United States were compiled into a database and separated into two-, three-, and four-valves-per-cylinder engine categories.
Technical Paper

Evaporation of In-Cylinder Liquid Fuel Droplets in an SI Engine: A Diagnostic-Based Modeling Study

1999-03-01
1999-01-0567
Liquid fuel behavior in the cylinder impacts SI engine HC emissions particularly during engine start-up. Inflow of liquid fuel into the cylinder is largely determined by the flow and temperature environment in the intake port. Subsequent evaporation of fuel droplets in the cylinder prior to impact on the piston and cylinder liner reduces the amount of liquid fuel in the cylinder that is likely to contribute to HC emission and is therefore important. In this study, measurements of liquid fuel droplet characteristics in the vicinity of the intake valve of a firing SI engine were analyzed to estimate the amount and spatial distribution of in-cylinder evaporation of liquid fuel prior to droplet impact on the cylinder liner or piston. A one-dimensional fuel droplet evaporation model was developed to predict the amount of fuel evaporation given measured fuel droplet sizes and velocities, intake port and valve temperatures during warm up, and cylinder geometry.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine and Fuel Variables on Liquid Fuel Transport into the Cylinder in Port-Injected SI Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0563
Liquid fuel inflow into the cylinder is considered to be an important source of exhaust hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from automotive spark ignition engines. These liquid-fuel-caused emissions are increased significantly during the start up and subsequent warm-up period. This study analyzes the influence of several engine and injector design variables, and fuel parameters, on the in-cylinder liquid fuel behavior. The effect of the following parameters on the characteristics of the fuel droplets entering the cylinder was studied: Fuel volatility, injection timing, intake valve timing, injector type, spray geometry, and spray targeting in the intake port. A Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) was used in a single-cylinder flow visualization combustion engine to assess this in-cylinder liquid fuel behavior. Measurements of fuel droplet characteristics (size and velocity) were taken in selected locations in the vicinity of the intake valve during starting and warm up.
Technical Paper

The Performance of Future ICE and Fuel Cell Powered Vehicles and Their Potential Fleet Impact

2004-03-08
2004-01-1011
A study at MIT of the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from advanced technology future automobiles has compared fuel cell powered vehicles with equivalent gasoline and diesel internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles [1][2]. Current data regarding IC engine and fuel cell vehicle performance were extrapolated to 2020 to provide optimistic but plausible forecasts of how these technologies might compare. The energy consumed by the vehicle and its corresponding CO2 emissions, the fuel production and distribution energy and CO2 emissions, and the vehicle manufacturing process requirements were all evaluated and combined to give a well-to-wheels coupled with a cradle-to-grave assessment. The assessment results show that significant opportunities are available for improving the efficiency of mainstream gasoline and diesel engines and transmissions, and reducing vehicle resistances.
Technical Paper

Knock Behavior of a Lean-Burn, H2 and CO Enhanced, SI Gasoline Engine Concept

2004-03-08
2004-01-0975
Experiments were performed to identify the knock trends of lean hydrocarbon-air mixtures, and such mixtures enhanced with hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO). These enhanced mixtures simulated 15% and 30% of the engine's gasoline being reformed in a plasmatron fuel reformer [1]. Knock trends were determined by measuring the octane number (ON) of the primary reference fuel (mixture of isooctane and n-heptane) supplied to the engine that just produced audible knock. Experimental results show that leaner operation does not decrease the knock tendency of an engine under conditions where a fixed output torque is maintained; rather it slightly increases the octane requirement. The knock tendency does decrease with lean operation when the intake pressure is held constant, but engine torque is then reduced.
Technical Paper

Effects of Hydrogen Enhancement on Efficiency and NOx Emissions of Lean and EGR-Diluted Mixtures in a SI Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0253
Dilute operation of a SI engine offers attractive performance incentives. Lowered combustion temperatures and changes in the mixture composition inhibit NOx formation and increase the effective value of the ratio of burned gas specific heats, increasing gross indicated efficiency. Additionally, reduced intake manifold throttling minimizes pumping losses, leading to higher net indicated efficiency. These benefits are offset by the reduced combustion speed of dilute fuel-air mixtures, which can lead to high cycle-to-cycle variation and unacceptable engine behavior characteristics. Hydrogen enhancement can suppress the undesirable consequences of dilute operation by accelerating the combustion process, thereby extending the dilution limit. Hydrogen would be produced on-board the vehicle with a gasoline reforming device such as the plasmatron. High dilution at higher loads would necessitate boosting to meet the appropriate engine specific power requirements.
Technical Paper

Combustion Optimization in a Hydrogen-Enhanced Lean-Burn SI Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0251
As part of ongoing research on hydrogen-enhanced lean burn SI engines, this paper details an experimental combustion system optimization program. Experiments focused on three key areas: the ignition system, in-cylinder charge motion produced by changes in the inlet ports, and uniformity of fuel-air mixture preparation. Hydrogen enhancement is obtained with a H2, CO, N2 mixture produced by a fuel reformer such as the plasmatron. The ignition system tests compared a standard inductive coil scheme against high-energy discharge systems. Charge motion experiments focused on the impact of different flow and turbulence patterns generated within the cylinder by restrictor plates at the intake port entrance, as well as novel inlet flow modification cones. The in-cylinder fluid motion generated by each configuration was characterized using swirl and tumble flow benches. Mixture preparation tests compared a standard single-hole pintle port fuel injector against a fine atomizing 12-hole injector.
Technical Paper

The Contribution of Different Oil Consumption Sources to Total Oil Consumption in a Spark Ignition Engine

2004-10-25
2004-01-2909
As a part of the effort to comply with increasingly stringent emission standards, engine manufacturers strive to minimize engine oil consumption. This requires the advancement of the understanding of the characteristics, sources, and driving mechanisms of oil consumption. This paper presents a combined theoretical and experimental approach to separate and quantify different oil consumption sources in a production spark ignition engine at different speed and load conditions. A sulfur tracer method was used to measure the dependence of oil consumption on engine operating speed and load. Liquid oil distribution on the piston was studied using a Laser-Induced-Fluorescence (LIF) technique. In addition, important in-cylinder parameters for oil transport and oil consumption, such as liner temperatures and land pressures, were measured.
Technical Paper

Effects of Substantial Spark Retard on SI Engine Combustion and Hydrocarbon Emissions

2003-10-27
2003-01-3237
Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of substantial spark retard on combustion, hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, and exhaust temperature, under cold engine conditions. A single-cylinder research engine was operated at 20° C fluid temperatures for various spark timings and relative air/fuel ratios. Combustion stability was observed to decrease as the phasing of the 50% mass fraction burned (MFB) occurred later in the expansion stroke. A thermodynamic burn rate analysis indicated combustion was complete at exhaust valve opening with -20° before top dead center (BTDC) spark timings. Chemical and thermal energy of the exhaust gas was tracked from cylinder-exit to the exhaust runner. Time-resolved HC concentrations measured in the port and runner were mass weighted to obtain an exhaust HC mass flow rate. Results were compared to time averaged well downstream HC levels.
Technical Paper

Mixture Preparation Mechanisms in a Port Fuel Injected Engine

2005-05-11
2005-01-2080
An experimental study was carried out that qualitatively examined the mixture preparation process in port fuel injected engines. The primary variables in this study were intake valve lift, intake valve timing, injector spray quality, and injection timing. A special visualization engine was used to obtain high-speed videos of the fuel-air mixture flowing through the intake valve, as well as the wetting of the intake valve and head in the combustion chamber. Additionally, videos were taken from within the intake port using a borescope to examine liquid fuel distribution in the port. Finally, a simulation study was carried out in order to understand how the various combinations of intake valve lifts and timings affect the flow velocity through the intake valve gap to aid in the interpretation of the videos.
Technical Paper

Performance Maps of Turbocharged SI Engines with Gasoline-Ethanol Blends: Torque, Efficiency, Compression Ratio, Knock Limits, and Octane

2014-04-01
2014-01-1206
1 Downsizing and turbocharging a spark-ignited engine is becoming an important strategy in the engine industry for improving the efficiency of gasoline engines. Through boosting the air flow, the torque is increased, the engine can thus be downsized, engine friction is reduced in both absolute and relative terms, and engine efficiency is increased. However knock onset with a given octane rating fuel limits both compression ratio and boost levels. This paper explores the operating limits of a turbocharged engine, with various gasoline-ethanol blends, and the interaction between compression ratio, boost levels, and spark retard, to achieve significant increases in maximum engine mean effective pressure and efficiency.
Technical Paper

Benefits of a Higher Octane Standard Gasoline for the U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet

2014-04-01
2014-01-1961
This paper explores the benefits that would be achieved if gasoline marketers produced and offered a higher-octane gasoline to the U.S. consumer market as the standard grade. By raising octane, engine knock constraints are reduced, so that new spark-ignition engines can be designed with higher compression ratios and boost levels. Consequently, engine and vehicle efficiencies are improved thus reducing fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet over time. The main objective of this paper is to quantify the reduction in fuel consumption and GHG emissions that would result for a given increase in octane number if new vehicles designed to use this higher-octane gasoline are deployed. GT-Power simulations and a literature review are used to determine the relative brake efficiency gain that is possible as compression ratio is increased.
Technical Paper

Effect of In-Cylinder Liquid Fuel Films on Engine-Out Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions for an SI Engine

2012-09-10
2012-01-1712
An experimental study was performed in a firing SI engine at conditions representative of the warmup phase of operation in which liquid gasoline films were established at various locations in the combustion chamber and the resulting impact on hydrocarbon emissions was assessed. Unique about this study was that it combined, in a firing engine environment, direct visual observation of the liquid fuel films, measurements of the temperatures these films were subjected to, and the determination from gas analyzers of burned and unburned fuel quantities exiting the combustion chamber - all with cycle-level resolution or better. A means of deducing the exhaust hydrocarbon emissions that were due to the liquid fuel films in the combustion chamber was developed. An increase in exhaust hydrocarbon emissions was always observed with liquid fuel films present in the combustion chamber.
Journal Article

Characterizations of Deployment Rates in Automotive Technology

2012-04-16
2012-01-1057
Passenger cars in the United States continue to incorporate increasing levels of technology and features. However, deployment of technology requires substantial development and time in the automotive sector. Prior analyses indicate that deployment of technology in the automotive sector can be described by a logistic function. These analyses refer to maximum annual growth rates as high as 17% and with developmental times of 10-15 years. However, these technologies vary widely in complexity and function, and span decades in their implementation. This work applies regression with a logistic form to a wide variety of automotive features and technologies and, using secondary regression, identifies broader trends across categories and over time.
Journal Article

A Forward-Looking Stochastic Fleet Assessment Model for Analyzing the Impact of Uncertainties on Light-Duty Vehicles Fuel Use and Emissions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0647
Transport policy research seeks to predict and substantially reduce the future transport-related greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption to prevent negative climate change impacts and protect the environment. However, making such predictions is made difficult due to the uncertainties associated with the anticipated developments of the technology and fuel situation in road transportation, which determine the total fuel use and emissions of the future light-duty vehicle fleet. These include uncertainties in the performance of future vehicles, fuels' emissions, availability of alternative fuels, demand, as well as market deployment of new technologies and fuels. This paper develops a methodology that quantifies the impact of uncertainty on the U.S. transport-related fuel use and emissions by introducing a stochastic technology and fleet assessment model that takes detailed technological and demand inputs.
Journal Article

Charge Cooling Effects on Knock Limits in SI DI Engines Using Gasoline/Ethanol Blends: Part 2-Effective Octane Numbers

2012-04-16
2012-01-1284
Spark Ignited Direct Injection (SI DI) of fuel extends engine knock limits compared to Port Fuel Injection (PFI) by utilizing the large in-cylinder charge cooling effect due to fuel evaporation. The use of gasoline/ethanol blends in direct injection (DI) is therefore especially advantageous due to the high heat of vaporization of ethanol. In addition to the thermal benefit due to charge cooling, ethanol blends also display superior chemical resistance to autoignition, therefore allowing the further extension of knock limits. Unlike the charge cooling benefit which is realized mostly in SI DI engines, the chemical benefit of ethanol blends exists in Port Fuel Injected (PFI) engines as well. The aim of this study is to separate and quantify the effect of fuel chemistry and charge cooling on knock. Using a turbocharged SI engine with both PFI and DI, knock limits were measured for both injection types and five gasoline-ethanol blends.
Technical Paper

Charge Cooling Effects on Knock Limits in SI DI Engines Using Gasoline/Ethanol Blends: Part 1-Quantifying Charge Cooling

2012-04-16
2012-01-1275
Gasoline/ethanol fuel blends have significant synergies with Spark Ignited Direct Injected (SI DI) engines. The higher latent heat of vaporization of ethanol increases charge cooling due to fuel evaporation and thus improves knock onset limits and efficiency. Realizing these benefits, however, can be challenging due to the finite time available for fuel evaporation and mixing. A methodology was developed to quantify how much in-cylinder charge cooling takes place in an engine for different gasoline/ethanol blends. Using a turbocharged SI engine with both Port Fuel Injection (PFI) and Direct Injection (DI), knock onset limits were measured for different intake air temperatures for both types of injection and five gasoline/ethanol blends. The superior charge cooling in DI compared to PFI for the same fuel resulted in pushing knock onset limits to higher in-cylinder maximum pressures. Knock onset is used as a diagnostic of charge cooling.
Journal Article

Fuel Economy Benefits and Aftertreatment Requirements of a Naturally Aspirated HCCI-SI Engine System

2008-10-06
2008-01-2512
This vehicle simulation study estimates the fuel economy benefits of an HCCI engine system and assesses the NOx, HC and CO aftertreatment performance required for compliance with emissions regulations on U.S. and European regulatory driving cycles. The four driving cycles considered are the New European Driving Cycle, EPA City Driving Cycle, EPA Highway Driving Cycle, and US06 Driving Cycle. For each driving cycle, the following influences on vehicle fuel economy were examined: power-to-weight ratio, HCCI combustion mode operating range, driving cycle characteristics, requirements for transitions out of HCCI mode when engine speeds and loads are within the HCCI operating range, fuel consumption and emissions penalties for transitions into and out of HCCI mode, aftertreatment system performance and tailpipe emissions regulations.
Technical Paper

The Relevance of Fuel RON and MON to Knock Onset in Modern SI Engines

2008-10-06
2008-01-2414
The Octane Index (OI) relates a fuel's knocking characteristics to a Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) that exhibits similar knocking characteristics at the same engine conditions. However, since the OI varies substantially with the engine operating conditions, it is typically measured at two standard conditions: the Research and Motor Octane Number (RON and MON) tests. These tests are intended to bracket the knock-limited operating range, and the OI is taken to be a weighted average of RON and MON: OI = K MON + (1-K) RON where K is the weighing factor. When the tests were established, K was approximately 0.5. However, recent tests with modern engines have found that K is now negative, indicating that the RON and MON tests no longer bracket the knock-limited operating conditions. Experiments were performed to measure the OI of different fuels in a modern engine to better understand the role of fuel sensitivity (RON-MON) on knock limits.
Technical Paper

Lean SI Engines: The role of combustion variability in defining lean limits

2007-09-16
2007-24-0030
Previous research has shown the potential benefits of running an engine with excess air. The challenges of running lean have also been identified, but not all of them have been fundamentally explained. Under high dilution levels, a lean limit is reached where combustion becomes unstable, significantly deteriorating drivability and engine efficiency, thus limiting the full potential of lean combustion. This paper expands the understanding of lean combustion by explaining the fundamentals behind this rapid rise in combustion variability and how this instability can be reduced. A flame entrainment combustion model was used to explain the fundamentals behind the observed combustion behavior in a comprehensive set of lean gasoline and hydrogen-enhanced cylinder pressure data in an SI engine. The data covered a wide range of operating conditions including different compression ratios, loads, types of dilution, fuels including levels of hydrogen enhancement, and levels of turbulence.
X