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Journal Article

Trends in Performance Characteristics of Modern Automobile SI and Diesel Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1892
A prior study (Chon and Heywood, [1]) examined how the design and performance of spark-ignition engines evolved in the United States during the 1980s and 1990s. This paper carries out a similar analysis of trends in basic engine design and performance characteristics over the past decade. Available databases on engine specifications in the U.S., Europe, and Japan were used as the sources of information. Parameters analyzed were maximum torque, power, and speed; number of cylinders and engine configuration, cylinder displacement, bore, stroke, compression ratio; valvetrain configuration, number of valves and their control; port or direct fuel injection; naturally-aspirated or turbocharged engine concepts; spark-ignition and diesel engines. Design features are correlated with these engine’s performance parameters, normalized by engine and cylinder displacement.
Technical Paper

Performance Maps of Turbocharged SI Engines with Gasoline-Ethanol Blends: Torque, Efficiency, Compression Ratio, Knock Limits, and Octane

2014-04-01
2014-01-1206
Abstract 1 Downsizing and turbocharging a spark-ignited engine is becoming an important strategy in the engine industry for improving the efficiency of gasoline engines. Through boosting the air flow, the torque is increased, the engine can thus be downsized, engine friction is reduced in both absolute and relative terms, and engine efficiency is increased. However knock onset with a given octane rating fuel limits both compression ratio and boost levels. This paper explores the operating limits of a turbocharged engine, with various gasoline-ethanol blends, and the interaction between compression ratio, boost levels, and spark retard, to achieve significant increases in maximum engine mean effective pressure and efficiency.
Technical Paper

Effects of Combustion Phasing, Relative Air-fuel Ratio, Compression Ratio, and Load on SI Engine Efficiency

2006-04-03
2006-01-0229
In an effort to both increase engine efficiency and generate new, consistent, and reliable data useful for the development of engine concepts, a modern single-cylinder 4-valve spark-ignition research engine was used to determine the response of indicated engine efficiency to combustion phasing, relative air-fuel ratio, compression ratio, and load. Combustion modeling was then used to help explain the observed trends, and the limitations on achieving higher efficiency. This paper analyzes the logic behind such gains in efficiency and presents correlations of the experimental data. The results are helpful for examining the potential for more efficient engine designs, where high compression ratios can be used under lean or dilute regimes, at a variety of loads.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Gasoline Engine Knock Limited Performance and the Effects of Hydrogen Enhancement

2006-04-03
2006-01-0228
A set of experiments was performed to investigate the effects of relative air-fuel ratio, inlet boost pressure, and compression ratio on engine knock behavior. Selected operating conditions were also examined with simulated hydrogen rich fuel reformate added to the gasoline-air intake mixture. For each operating condition knock limited spark advance was found for a range of octane numbers (ON) for two fuel types: primary reference fuels (PRFs), and toluene reference fuels (TRFs). A smaller set of experiments was also performed with unleaded test gasolines. A combustion phasing parameter based on the timing of 50% mass fraction burned, termed “combustion retard”, was used as it correlates well to engine performance. The combustion retard required to just avoid knock increases with relative air-fuel ratio for PRFs and decreases with air-fuel ratio for TRFs.
Journal Article

Coordinated Strategies for Ethanol and Flex Fuel Vehicle Deployment: A Quantitative Assessment of the Feasibility of Biofuel Targets

2010-04-12
2010-01-0735
The goal of this paper is to quantitatively assess the implications of congressionally mandated biofuel targets on requirements for ethanol blending, distribution, and usage in spark ignition engines in the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet. The “blend wall” is a term that refers to the maximum amount of ethanol that can be blended into the gasoline pool without exceeding the legal volumetric blend limit of 10%. Beyond the blend wall, the additional ethanol fuel must be used in higher blends of ethanol like E85. Once the blend wall is reached, the existing fleet of flex fuel vehicles (FFVs) will be required to use E85 for some percentage of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) in order to achieve the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets.
Journal Article

The Underlying Physics and Chemistry behind Fuel Sensitivity

2010-04-12
2010-01-0617
Recent studies have shown that for a given RON, fuels with a higher sensitivity (RON-MON) tend to have better antiknock performance at most knock-limited conditions in modern engines. The underlying chemistry behind fuel sensitivity was therefore investigated to understand why this trend occurs. Chemical kinetic models were used to study fuels of varying sensitivities; in particular their autoignition delay times and chemical intermediates were compared. As is well known, non-sensitive fuels tend to be paraffins, while the higher sensitivity fuels tend to be olefins, aromatics, diolefins, napthenes, and alcohols. A more exact relationship between sensitivity and the fuel's chemical structure was not found to be apparent. High sensitivity fuels can have vastly different chemical structures. The results showed that the autoignition delay time (τ) behaved differently at different temperatures. At temperatures below 775 K and above 900 K, τ has a strong temperature dependence.
Technical Paper

Benefits of a Higher Octane Standard Gasoline for the U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet

2014-04-01
2014-01-1961
Abstract This paper explores the benefits that would be achieved if gasoline marketers produced and offered a higher-octane gasoline to the U.S. consumer market as the standard grade. By raising octane, engine knock constraints are reduced, so that new spark-ignition engines can be designed with higher compression ratios and boost levels. Consequently, engine and vehicle efficiencies are improved thus reducing fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet over time. The main objective of this paper is to quantify the reduction in fuel consumption and GHG emissions that would result for a given increase in octane number if new vehicles designed to use this higher-octane gasoline are deployed. GT-Power simulations and a literature review are used to determine the relative brake efficiency gain that is possible as compression ratio is increased.
Journal Article

Effects of Secondary Air Injection During Cold Start of SI Engines

2010-10-25
2010-01-2124
An experimental study was performed to develop a more fundamental understanding of the effects of secondary air injection (SAI) on exhaust gas emissions and catalyst light-off characteristics during cold start of a modern SI engine. The effects of engine operating parameters and various secondary air injection strategies such as spark retardation, fuel enrichment, secondary air injection location and air flow rate were investigated to understand the mixing, heat loss, and thermal and catalytic oxidation processes associated with SAI. Time-resolved HC, CO and CO₂ concentrations were tracked from the cylinder exit to the catalytic converter outlet and converted to time-resolved mass emissions by applying an instantaneous exhaust mass flow rate model. A phenomenological model of exhaust heat transfer combined with the gas composition analysis was also developed to define the thermal and chemical energy state of the exhaust gas with SAI.
Journal Article

The Shift in Relevance of Fuel RON and MON to Knock Onset in Modern SI Engines Over the Last 70 Years

2009-11-02
2009-01-2622
Since the advent of the spark ignition engine, the maximum engine efficiency has been knock limited. Knock is a phenomena caused by the rapid autoignition of fuel/air mixture (endgas) ahead of the flame front. The propensity of a fuel to autoignite corresponds to its autoignition chemistry at the local endgas temperature and pressure. Since a fuel blend consists of many components, its autoignition chemistry is very complex. The octane index (OI) simplifies this complex autoignition chemistry by comparing a fuel to a Primary Reference Fuel (PRF), a binary blend of iso-octane and n-heptane. As more iso-octane is added into the blend, the PRF is less likely to autoignite. The OI of a fuel is defined as the volumetric percentage of iso-octane in the PRF blend that exhibits similar knocking characteristics at the same engine conditions.
Technical Paper

Effect of In-Cylinder Liquid Fuel Films on Engine-Out Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions for an SI Engine

2012-09-10
2012-01-1712
An experimental study was performed in a firing SI engine at conditions representative of the warmup phase of operation in which liquid gasoline films were established at various locations in the combustion chamber and the resulting impact on hydrocarbon emissions was assessed. Unique about this study was that it combined, in a firing engine environment, direct visual observation of the liquid fuel films, measurements of the temperatures these films were subjected to, and the determination from gas analyzers of burned and unburned fuel quantities exiting the combustion chamber - all with cycle-level resolution or better. A means of deducing the exhaust hydrocarbon emissions that were due to the liquid fuel films in the combustion chamber was developed. An increase in exhaust hydrocarbon emissions was always observed with liquid fuel films present in the combustion chamber.
Journal Article

A Forward-Looking Stochastic Fleet Assessment Model for Analyzing the Impact of Uncertainties on Light-Duty Vehicles Fuel Use and Emissions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0647
Transport policy research seeks to predict and substantially reduce the future transport-related greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption to prevent negative climate change impacts and protect the environment. However, making such predictions is made difficult due to the uncertainties associated with the anticipated developments of the technology and fuel situation in road transportation, which determine the total fuel use and emissions of the future light-duty vehicle fleet. These include uncertainties in the performance of future vehicles, fuels' emissions, availability of alternative fuels, demand, as well as market deployment of new technologies and fuels. This paper develops a methodology that quantifies the impact of uncertainty on the U.S. transport-related fuel use and emissions by introducing a stochastic technology and fleet assessment model that takes detailed technological and demand inputs.
Journal Article

Characterizations of Deployment Rates in Automotive Technology

2012-04-16
2012-01-1057
Passenger cars in the United States continue to incorporate increasing levels of technology and features. However, deployment of technology requires substantial development and time in the automotive sector. Prior analyses indicate that deployment of technology in the automotive sector can be described by a logistic function. These analyses refer to maximum annual growth rates as high as 17% and with developmental times of 10-15 years. However, these technologies vary widely in complexity and function, and span decades in their implementation. This work applies regression with a logistic form to a wide variety of automotive features and technologies and, using secondary regression, identifies broader trends across categories and over time.
Journal Article

Charge Cooling Effects on Knock Limits in SI DI Engines Using Gasoline/Ethanol Blends: Part 2-Effective Octane Numbers

2012-04-16
2012-01-1284
Spark Ignited Direct Injection (SI DI) of fuel extends engine knock limits compared to Port Fuel Injection (PFI) by utilizing the large in-cylinder charge cooling effect due to fuel evaporation. The use of gasoline/ethanol blends in direct injection (DI) is therefore especially advantageous due to the high heat of vaporization of ethanol. In addition to the thermal benefit due to charge cooling, ethanol blends also display superior chemical resistance to autoignition, therefore allowing the further extension of knock limits. Unlike the charge cooling benefit which is realized mostly in SI DI engines, the chemical benefit of ethanol blends exists in Port Fuel Injected (PFI) engines as well. The aim of this study is to separate and quantify the effect of fuel chemistry and charge cooling on knock. Using a turbocharged SI engine with both PFI and DI, knock limits were measured for both injection types and five gasoline-ethanol blends.
Technical Paper

Charge Cooling Effects on Knock Limits in SI DI Engines Using Gasoline/Ethanol Blends: Part 1-Quantifying Charge Cooling

2012-04-16
2012-01-1275
Gasoline/ethanol fuel blends have significant synergies with Spark Ignited Direct Injected (SI DI) engines. The higher latent heat of vaporization of ethanol increases charge cooling due to fuel evaporation and thus improves knock onset limits and efficiency. Realizing these benefits, however, can be challenging due to the finite time available for fuel evaporation and mixing. A methodology was developed to quantify how much in-cylinder charge cooling takes place in an engine for different gasoline/ethanol blends. Using a turbocharged SI engine with both Port Fuel Injection (PFI) and Direct Injection (DI), knock onset limits were measured for different intake air temperatures for both types of injection and five gasoline/ethanol blends. The superior charge cooling in DI compared to PFI for the same fuel resulted in pushing knock onset limits to higher in-cylinder maximum pressures. Knock onset is used as a diagnostic of charge cooling.
Technical Paper

A Model for Predicting Residual Gas Fraction in Spark-Ignition Engines

1993-03-01
931025
A model for calculating the residual gas fraction in spark ignition engines has been formulated. The model accounts explicitly for the contribution due to the back flow of exhaust gas to the cylinder during the valve overlap period. The model has been calibrated with in-cylinder hydrocarbon measurements at different values of intake pressure, engine speed, and valve overlap timings.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chamber Deposit Effects on Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Spark-Ignition Engine

1997-10-01
972887
A dynamometer-mounted four-cylinder Saturn engine was used to accumulate combustion chamber deposits (CCD), using an additized fuel. During each deposit accumulation test, the HC emissions were continuously measured. The deposit thickness at the center of the piston was measured at the beginning of each day. After the 50 and 35-hour tests, HC emissions were measured with isooctane, benzene, toluene, and xylene, with the deposited engine, and again after the deposits had been cleaned from the engine. The HC emissions showed a rapid rise in the first 10 to 15 hours and stabilization after about 25 hours of deposit accumulation. The HC increase due to CCD accumulation accounted for 10 to 20% of the total engine-out HC emissions from the deposit build-up fuel and 10 to 30% from benzene, isooctane, toluene, and xylene, making CCDs a significant HC emissions source from this engine. The HC emissions stabilized long before the deposit thickness.
Technical Paper

Fast Gas Temperature Measurement by Velocity of Sound for IC Engine Applications

1997-10-01
972826
In the study of internal combustion engines, gas temperatures within the system are of significant importance. The adverse conditions under firing operation, however, make measurements by any means very difficult. This current study seems to have gone the farthest to date for velocity of sound gas temperature measurements in internal combustion engine applications. An ultrasound signal is sent by a transmitting transducer, through the gas medium, and into the receiving transducer. The received signal is recorded, and the gas temperature determined from the time of flight. In-cylinder and exhaust manifold gas temperatures under fired conditions are presented, and are all consistent. Impacts of operating parameters like mixture equivalence ratio and coolant temperature are investigated.
Technical Paper

Effects of Piston-Ring Dynamics on Ring/Groove Wear and Oil Consumption in a Diesel Engine

1997-02-24
970835
The wear patterns of the rings and grooves of a diesel engine were analyzed by using a ring dynamics/gas flow model and a ring-pack oil film thickness model. The analysis focused primarily on the contact pressure distribution on the ring sides and grooves as well as on the contact location on the ring running surfaces. Analysis was performed for both new and worn ring/groove profiles. Calculated results are consistent with the measured wear patterns. The effects of groove tilt and static twist on the development of wear patterns on the ring sides, grooves, and ring running surfaces were studied. Ring flutter was observed from the calculation and its effect on oil transport was discussed. Up-scraping of the top ring was studied by considering ring dynamic twist and piston tilt. This work shows that the models used have potential for providing practical guidance to optimizing the ring pack and ring grooves to control wear and reduce oil consumption.
Technical Paper

Liquid Fuel Transport Mechanisms into the Cylinder of a Firing Port-Injected SI Engine During Start Up

1997-02-24
970865
The occurrence of liquid fuel in the cylinder of automotive internal combustion engines is believed to be an important source of exhaust hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, especially during the warm-up process following an engine start up. In this study a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) has been used in a transparent flow visualization combustion engine in order to investigate the phenomena which govern the transport of liquid fuel into the cylinder during a simulated engine start up process. Using indolene fuel, the engine was started up from room temperature and run for 90 sec on each start up simulation. The size and velocity of the liquid fuel droplets entering the cylinder were measured as a function of time and crank angle position during these start up processes. The square-piston transparent engine used gave full optical access to the cylinder head region, so that these droplet characteristics could be measured in the immediate vicinity of the intake valve.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer and Mixture Vaporization in Intake Port of Spark-Ignition Engine

1997-10-01
972983
Time-resolved heat flux and gas temperature measurements in the intake port of a spark ignition engine are presented. Experiments were pursued for motored, propane fired, and liquid fuel operation. Heat transfer coefficients were built from the dry data. Also, heat transfer rates in the port and off the back of the intake valve were integrated over the main flow phases. For a typical low-load propane-fired operating condition, heat transfer in the port caused a mean intake air temperature increase of approximately 10°C. The main different intake flow phases, induction or forward flow, displacement backflow, and valve overlap backflow, contributed approximately 10°C, 3°C, and negative 3°C, respectively. These mixture temperature changes are expected to be also applicable for liquid fuel injected cases. While the heat flux instrumentation was primarily intended for dry operation of the engine, liquid fuel experiments were also pursued.
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