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Technical Paper

The Application of Solid Selective Catalytic Reduction on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2364
Urea SCR technology is the most promising technique to reduce NOx emissions from heavy duty diesel engines. 32.5wt% aqueous urea solution is widely used as ammonia storage species for the urea SCR process. The thermolysis and hydrolysis of urea produces reducing agent ammonia and reduces NOx emissions to nitrogen and water. However, the application of urea SCR technology has many challenges at low temperature conditions, such as deposits formation in the exhaust pipe, lack deNOx performance at low temperature and freezing below -12°C. For preventing deposits formation, aqueous urea solution is hardly injected into exhaust gas stream at temperature below 200°C. The aqueous urea solution used as reducing agent precursor is the main obstacle for achieving high deNOx performances at low temperature conditions. This paper presents a solid SCR technology for control NOx emissions from heavy duty diesel engines.
Technical Paper

The Application of HSIC in Idle Speed Control of Diesel Engines

1996-02-01
960330
This paper describes the application of Human Simulation Intelligent Control(HSIC) method to improve the idle speed performance of heavy-duty diesel engines on the basis of diesel engine electronic control system. The HSIC is a kind of intelligent control method which can be used without knowing the system's model and it can on line choose control models and it is also easy to be used under the condition of diesel engine electronic control system. In our system, we used electronic control system to control fuel quantity by double loop control of pump rack position and engine speed. From the experimental results, The engine minimum idle speed has been reduced from 800 rpm at first to 500 rpm, and the speed fluctuation have been reduced by 50 percent. From the system's design and test, the simplicity and efficiency of the HSIC control method were demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Spray Characteristics of Gasoline-Ethanol Fuel Blends under Flash-Boiling Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0297
The spray structure and vaporization processes of flash-boiling sprays in a constant volume chamber under a wide range of superheated conditions were experimentally investigated by a high speed imaging technique. The Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector was used. Four fuels including gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol blends E30 and E50 were investigated. Spray penetration length and spray width were correlated to the degree of the superheated degree, which is the ratio of the ambient pressure to saturated vapor pressure (pa/ps). It is found that parameter pa/ps is critical in describing the spray transformation under flash-boiling conditions. Three distinct stages namely the slight flash-boiling, the transition flash-boiling, and the flare flash-boiling are identified to describe the transformation of spray structures.
Technical Paper

Soot and PAH Formation Characteristics of Methanol-Gasoline Belnds in Laminar Coflow Diffusion Flames

2018-04-03
2018-01-0357
Particulate matter emissions are becoming a big issue for GDI engines as the emission regulations being more stringent. Methanol has been considered to be an important alternative fuel to reduce soot emissions. To understand the effect of methanol addition on soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) formation, the 2-D distributions of soot volume fraction and different size PAHs relative concentrations in methanol/gasoline laminar diffusion flames were measured by TC-LII and PLIF techniques. The effect of methanol was investigated under the conditions of the same carbon flow and the same flame height. The methanol volume fraction was set as M0/20/40/60/80. The results showed that the natural luminescent flame lift-off height and soot lift-off height increases consistently with the increasing methanol content due to the increase of outlet velocity of fuel vapor.
Technical Paper

Research on the UML-based Modeling of Embedded Software for Diesel Engine Control System

2013-09-08
2013-24-0135
The method and steps for software modeling of the embedded control systems for diesel engine based on UML are described in this paper. In order to meet the software function and the features of the system, object-oriented modeling for diesel engine embedded control software system has been implemented. Requirements are depicted by use case diagram and the logic structure is depicted by class diagram. According to the domain knowledge and the class diagram, the sequence diagram and state diagram are developed to describe the dynamic behavior of the system. The level of software development has been enhanced to the system level by software modeling. It focuses on the automotive field, and can be easy to grasp the problem from the overall perspective and discover software design problems at the early stage. It is also convenient to solve the problems caused by the change of requirements. The model has an excellent flexibility so that it can be applied to different software platforms.
Technical Paper

Research on Control Strategy of Shifting Progress

2008-06-23
2008-01-1684
Based on BF6M1015CP electronic diesel engine (it is a supercharged, water-cooled engine. It has 6 cylinders and it is for heavy-duty vehicle) and HD4070PR electronic automatic transmission (it covers heavy-duty applications requiring high input horsepower and torque. It contains torque converter module, control module, planetary module and output module. It has 7 forward gears and a power-take -off (PTO) and a retarder), the paper analyzes the shift system of an electronic automatic transmission and sets up a mathematic module of the shifting process. With the model the shifting process is analyzed and the model can be used directly in shifting process control, and the rules of shifting process can be derived. To improve the shift quality, in the paper the different control methods in different phases are used and reviewed that Include the open-loop control, fixed ramp rate, and closed-loop control.
Technical Paper

Regulated, Carbonyl Emissions and Particulate Matter from a Dual-Fuel Passenger Car Burning Neat Methanol and Gasoline

2015-04-14
2015-01-1082
As a probable solution to both energy and environmental crisis, methanol and methanol gasoline have been used as gasoline surrogates in several provinces of China. Most recently, the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China is drafting a special emission standard for methanol-fueled light-duty vehicles. Given the scarcity of available data, this paper evaluated regulated emissions, carbonyl compounds and particulate matter from a China-5 certificated gasoline/methanol dual-fuel vehicle over New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The results elucidated that in context with gasoline mode, CO emitted in methanol mode decreased 11.2%, while no evident changes of THC and NOx emissions were noticed with different fueling regimes. The total carbonyls and formaldehyde have increased by 39.5% and 19.8% respectively after switching from gasoline to methanol. A remarkable decrease of 65.6% in particulate matter was observed in methanol mode.
Technical Paper

Proceedings of Real Driving Emission (RDE) Measurement in China

2018-04-03
2018-01-0653
Light-duty China-6, which is among the most stringent vehicle exhaust emission standards globally, mandates the monitoring and reporting of real driving emissions (RDE) from July, 2023. In the process of regulation promulgation and verification, more than 300 RDE tests have been performed on over 50 China-5 and China-6 certified models. This technical paper endeavors to summarize the experience of RDE practice in China, and discuss the impacts of some boundary conditions (including vehicle dynamic parameters, data processing methods, hybrid propulsion and testing altitude) on the result of RDE measurement. In general, gasoline passenger cars confront few challenges to meet the upcoming RDE NOx requirement, but some China-5 certified samples, even powered by naturally-aspirated engines may have PN issues. PN emissions from some GDI-hybrid powertrain systems also need further reduction to meet China-6 RDE requirements.
Technical Paper

One-dimensional Simulation Study on the Rule of Several-parameter Matching for the Performance of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1696
One-dimensional combustion performance of a turbocharged V-type eight-cylinder diesel engine was computed by used of WAVE code. The parameters of compress ratio, intake temperature, intake pressure, fuel injection quantity, advance angle of injection, fuel injection rate and fuel injection duration were changed so as to study quantificationally how these parameters affect the power, fuel consume, the max combustion pressure, exhaust temperature and emission of the diesel engine. The computational results could help to accomplish the preliminary optimization of several parameters for combustion matching and supplement experimental experience and exploit new products.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of an Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Diesel Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0404
This paper investigates the scavenging process, in-cylinder gas motion in an opposed-piston two-stroke diesel engine and compares the results of in-cylinder gas motion to those of a uniflow-scavenged two stroke conventional engine using computational fluid dynamics engine models. The effect of piston motion profile of OP2S on the scavenging performance was discussed and its optimization was developed. Subsequently, CFD simulation on full load scavenging process was conducted at the same intake pressure and simulation at 2500rpm showed an optimum scavenging performance evaluated by delivery ratio, trapping efficiency and scavenging efficiency. Enhanced axial velocity and average turbulence kinetic energy around minimum volume center were found for OP2S diesel engine compared to the conventional two-stroke diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Macroscopic and Microscopic Characteristics of Flash Boiling Spray with Binary Fuel Mixtures

2019-04-02
2019-01-0274
Flash boiling has drawn much attention recently for its ability to enhance spray atomization and vaporization, while providing better fuel/air mixing for gasoline direct injection engines. However, the behaviors of flash boiling spray with multi-component fuels have not been fully discovered. In this study, isooctane, ethanol and the mixtures of the two with three blend ratios were chosen as the fuels. Measurements were performed with constant fuel temperature while ambient pressures were varied to adjust the superheated degree. Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of flash boiling spray were investigated using Diffused Back-Illumination (DBI) imaging and Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). Comparisons between flash boiling sprays with single component and binary fuel mixtures were performed to study the effect of fuel properties on spray structure as well as atomization and vaporization processes.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Nozzle Clearance Effects on a Radial Turbine: Aerodynamic Performance and Forced Response

2013-04-08
2013-01-0918
Variable nozzle turbine (VNT) technology has become a popular technology for diesel engine application. To pivot the nozzle vane and adjust the turbine operating condition, nozzle clearances are inevitable on both the hub and shroud side of turbine housing. Leakage flow formed inside the nozzle clearance leads to extra flow loss and makes the nozzle exit flow less uniform, thus further affects downstream aerodynamic performance of the rotor. As the leakage mixing with nozzle wake flow, the process is highly unsteady, which increases the fluctuation amplitude of transient load on the rotating turbine wheels. In present paper, firstly steady CFD analysis of a turbocharger turbine was performed at different nozzle openings. Then unsteady simulation of the turbine was carried out to investigate the interaction between the leakage flow through nozzle clearance and the main flow. Nozzle clearance's effect on turbine performance was investigated.
Technical Paper

Influence of Intake Valve Lift on Flow Capacity of Intake Port

2019-04-02
2019-01-0223
A three-dimensional model of a diesel engine intake port was established and was verified by steady-flow test. Based on this model, the influence of intake valve lift on the flow capacity of intake port was studied and a design method of maximum valve lift was put forward. The results show that, under different intake pressure and relative pressure difference conditions, the discharge coefficient increases first and then converges with the increase of valve lift. Under the same valve lift condition, with the increase of relative pressure difference, the discharge coefficient decreases slightly in subsonic state and decreases sharply from subsonic state to supersonic state, but the mass flow rate increases slightly. The optimum ratio of valve lift and valve seat diameter is related to relative pressure difference, it increases first and then keeps constant with the increase of relative pressure difference.
Journal Article

Fuzzy-PID Speed Control of Diesel Engine Based on Load Estimation

2015-04-14
2015-01-1627
In order to improve the anti-disturbance performance of engine-load and the effect on speed control for the diesel engine, the paper presents the fuzzy-PID speed control strategy in the architecture of torque-based control. The engine-load estimation algorithm is designed based on the mean-value-model and crankshaft dynamics model, and the estimation precision is validated by engine test in both steady and dynamic conditions. Through the experiment verification of the diesel engine, the fuzzy-PID control strategy based on load estimation can significantly improve the anti-disturbance performance of engine-load in the speed control.
Technical Paper

Fault Detection and Diagnosis of Diesel Engine Lubrication System Performance Degradation Faults based on PSO-SVM

2017-10-08
2017-01-2430
Considering the randomness and instability of the oil pressure in the lubrication system, a new approach for fault detection and diagnosis of diesel engine lubrication system based on support vector machine optimized by particle swarm optimization (PSO-SVM) model and centroid location algorithm has been proposed. Firstly, PSO algorithm is chosen to determine the optimum parameters of SVM, to avoid the blindness of choosing parameters. It can improve the prediction accuracy of the model. The results show that the classify accuracy of PSO-SVM is improved compared with SVM in which parameters are set according to experience. Then, the support vector machine classification interface is fitted to a curve, and the boundary conditions of fault diagnosis are obtained. Finally, diagnose algorithm is achieved through analyzing the centroid movement of features. According to Performance degradation data, degenerate trajectory model is established based on centroid location.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Study on the Fuel Pressure Fluctuations Aroused by the Injector for the Electronic Unit Pump System

2017-10-08
2017-01-2217
The electronic unit pump system, which is widely applied to the heavy-duty diesel engine, belongs to the pulsating high-pressure fuel injection system, and the fuel pressure fluctuations have an essential influence on the spray and combustion in the internal combustion engine. Besides, pressure fluctuations are always aroused by the motion of actuators, such as the injector or other control valves, so it is also an advantage for fault diagnosis and feedback control to ascertain the relationship between the pressure fluctuation and the motion of the actuator. In this study, experiments and 1D-simulation were carried on to investigate the fuel pressure fluctuation characteristics and their correlations with the transient motion of the needle valve in the injector.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on the Effects of Intake Parameters on Diesel LTC Combustion and Emission

2017-10-08
2017-01-2259
The diesel low temperature combustion (LTC) can keep high efficiency and produce low emission. Which has been widely studied at home and abroad in recent years. The combustion control parameters, such as injection pressure, injection timing, intake oxygen concentration, intake pressure, intake temperature and so on, have an important influence on the combustion and emission of diesel LTC. Therefore, to realize different combustion modes and combustion mode switch of diesel engine, it is necessary to accurately control the injection parameters and intake parameters of diesel engine. In this work, experimental study has been carried out to analyze the effect of intake oxygen concentration, intake pressure and intake temperature in combustion and emission characteristics of diesel LTC, such as in-cylinder pressure, temperature, heat release rate, NOx and soot emission.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Hydraulic Free Piston Diesel Engine

2010-10-25
2010-01-2149
In this paper the experiments of hydraulic free piston diesel engine is described. The experimental data were obtained from measurement instruments on the free piston diesel engine that has been developed by Beijing Institute of Technology [ 1 ]. This article discusses the influences of compression pressure, injection timing, and combustion process to the free piston diesel engine principle. The compression process experiment shows that the piston velocity, the compression ratio can be controlled by adjusting the compression pressure. With the increasing of the compression pressure, there is a growing a compression ratio and piston velocity. The study on injection timing shows that the injection timing impacts the cylinder pressure peak value and the pressure peak arrival time. The combustion process is quite different from the crankshaft engine because of the unique piston movement characteristics of the hydraulic free piston engine.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of B20 Combustion and Emission Characteristics under Several EGR Conditions

2015-04-14
2015-01-1078
It is found that biodiesel has a great potential to reduce the nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot emissions simultaneously in low temperature combustion (LTC) mode. The objective of this study is to investigate the combustion and emission characteristics of 20% biodiesel blend diesel fuel (B20) under several exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) conditions for LTC application. An experimental investigation of B20 was conducted on a four-stroke common rail direct injection diesel engine at 2000rpm and 25% load condition. The EGR ratio was adjusted from 10% to 66%, and the injection pressure was tuned from 100MPa to 140MPa. The result showed that B20 generated less soot emission than conventional diesel with increasing EGR ratio, especially when the EGR ratio was beyond 30%. Soot emission increased with increasing EGR ratio up to 50% EGR, after which there is a steep decrease in particular matter (PM).
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