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Technical Paper

Triple Injection Strategies for Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Combustion in a Single-Cylinder Small-Bore Common-Rail Diesel Engine

Implementing triple injection strategies in partially premixed charge-based gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engines has shown to achieve improved engine efficiency and reduced NOx and smoke emissions in many previous studies. While the impact of the triple injections on engine performance and engine-out emissions are well known, their role in controlling the mixture homogeneity and charge premixedness is currently poorly understood. The present study shows correspondence between the triple injection strategies and mixture homogeneity/premixedness through the experimental tests of second/third injection proportion and their timing variations with an aim to explain the observed GCI engine performance and emission trends. The experiments were conducted in a single cylinder, small-bore common-rail diesel engine fuelled with a commercial gasoline fuel of 95 research octane number (RON) and running at 2000 rpm and 830 kPa indicated mean effective pressure conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of an On-Line System for Oil Void Fraction Measurements

A prototype of measurement device that compresses a sample of engine oil at constant temperature and calculates its void fraction from the magnitude of volume change and pressure was proposed. During compression, the oil sample was pressurized to several hundreds of kPa above atmospheric pressure. Because the gas can be regarded as an ideal gas at this pressure level, the estimation of void fraction can be based on a simple formula derived from the ideal gas law, the law of conservation of mass and Henry’s law. The calibration line is represented by a linear equation of the void fraction, and from the coefficient of void fraction or the constant term the volume fraction of the dissolved gas in the initial state can be known. That is, by experimentally determining the calibration line, not only void fraction but also the volume fraction of the dissolved gas in the initial state can be known. Then, the results of measurement principle confirmation tests were given.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Soot Reduction Using Microwave Generated Plasma in an Optically Accessible Small-Bore Diesel Engine

The present study explores the effect of in-cylinder generated non-thermal plasma on hydroxyl and soot development. Plasma was generated using a newly developed Microwave Discharge Igniter (MDI), a device which operates based on the principle of microwave resonation and has the potential to accentuate the formation of active radical pools as well as suppress soot formation while stimulating soot oxidation. Three diagnostic techniques were employed in a single-cylinder small-bore optical diesel engine, including chemiluminescence imaging of electronically excited hydroxyl (OH*), planar laser induced fluorescence imaging of OH (OH-PLIF) and planar laser induced incandescence (PLII) imaging of soot. While investigating the behaviour of MDI discharge under engine motoring conditions, it was found that plasma-induced OH* signal size and intensity increased with higher in-cylinder pressures albeit with shorter lifetime and lower breakdown consistency.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Lean Limit and Fuel Consumption Using Microwave Plasma Ignition Technology

A plasma combustion system was developed to improve fuel economy and efficiency without modifying the engine configuration. Non-thermal plasma generation technology with microwave was applied. Plasma was generated by spark discharge and expanded using microwaves that accelerated the plasma electrons, generating non-thermal plasma. Even at high pressures, spark discharge occurred, allowing plasma generation under high pressures. The durability and practicality of previous plasma combustion systems was improved. The system consisted of a spark plug without a resistor, a mixer circuit, and a control system. The mixer unit used a standard spark plug for plasma combustion and functioned as a high-voltage and high-frequency isolator. A commercially available magnetron produced microwaves of 2.45 GHz. The spark and microwave control system used a trigger signal set to the given crank angle, from the engine control unit.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of Microwave Plasma Combustion Engine (Part I: Concept of Plasma Combustion and Plasma Generation Technique)

This study aims to develop innovative plasma combustion system to improve fuel economy and achieve higher efficiency without any modification of current engine configuration. A new plasma generation technique, that used a combination of spark discharge and microwave, was proposed. This technique was applied to gasoline engine as an ignition source, which was intensive and stable even in lean condition. In this technique, firstly, small plasma source was generated by spark discharge. Secondly, microwave was radiated to the plasma source to expand the plasma. The microwave power was absorbed by the plasma source and large non-thermal plasma was formed. In non-thermal plasma, the electron temperature was high and the gas temperature was low. Then many OH radicals were generated in the plasma. The frequency of the microwave was 2.45 GHz because we used a magnetron for microwave oven. Magnetrons for microwave oven were high efficiency and reasonable.
Technical Paper

In-spark-plug Sensor for Analyzing the Initial Flame and Its Structure in an SI Engine

An in-spark-plug flame sensor was developed to measure local chemiluminescence near the spark gap in a practical spark-ignition (SI) engine in order to study the development of the initial flame kernel, flame front structure, transient phenomena, and the correlation between the initial flame kernel structure and cyclic variation in the flame front structure, which influences engine performance directly. The sensor consists of a commercial instrumented spark plug with small Cassegrain optics and an optical fiber. The small Cassegrain optics were developed to measure the local chemiluminescence intensity profile and temporal history of OH*, CH*, and C2* at the flame front formed in a turbulent premixed flame in an SI engine. A highresolution monochromator with an intensified chargecoupled device (ICCD) and spectroscopy using optical filters and photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) were used to measure the time-series of the three radicals, as well as the in-cylinder pressure.
Technical Paper

Cyclic Variation in HC Concentration near the Spark Plug in a Two-Stroke Engine

The purpose of this study is to examine the cause of combustion fluctuation in a partially loaded two-stroke engine with respect to the hydrocarbon (HC) concentration in the cylinder. HC concentration in the cylinder, exhaust gas velocity and pressure were simultaneously measured in order to determine the influence of HC concentration on combustion fluctuation. A correlation between cyclic variation in HC concentration in the cylinder and IMEP was confirmed. The way in which the HC concentration influenced the combustion states in the next cycle made clear. A decrease of HC concentration cause the delay of early flame development and combustion, the decrease of HC concentration had an great influence on the combustion states. The relationship between combustion states and HC concentration was discussed. The relative value of IMEP and HC concentration were closely related to the HC concentration in the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Experimental Detection of Misfiring Source from Flow Rate Variation at Transfer Port and Exhaust Pipe in a Two-Stroke Engine

The purpose of this study was to detect a misfiring cycle in terms of the transfer-passage and the exhaust-pipe flow rate by experimental measurements. Simultaneous measurements of flow rates and in-cylinder pressure were carried out. The flow rate data were grouped into the different combustion classes by the in-cylinder pressure. A large flow rate of exhaust blow-down and a large reverse flow rate were observed in the cycle before misfiring, compared with in the cycle before firing. It showed that high concentration of the residual burnt gas in the cylinder was the main source of misfiring, this feature was also demonstrated by the complementary measurement of CO and CO2 concentrations.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Flow Measurement and Its Application for Cyclic Variation Analysis in a Two-Stroke Engine

The purpose of this study is to experimentally investigate in-cylinder flows with cyclic variation in a practical part-loaded two-stroke engine. First, the in-cylinder LDV measurements are introduced, which were carried out above the port layout and the combustion chamber as well as the exhaust pipe or the transfer port together with the simultaneous pressure measurements. Second, the in-cylinder flow characteristics in different combustion groups were discussed. The in-cylinder flow and the combustion-chamber flow were not simply characterized by the pressure variation in the engine or the other passage flow in the exhaust pipe or the transfer port. Finally, the in-cylinder flow structure with three stages was shown using the vector variation analysis and the drawing of the velocity profiles in the engine parts.
Technical Paper

Cyclic Variation of CO and CO2 Emissions and Scavenging Flow in a Two-Stroke Engine

The purpose of this study is to experimentally understand the cyclic variation of combustion state in a two-stroke engine with respect to the variations in scavenging flow and the CO and CO2 emissions. The criteria of grouping combustion states into misfiring were established using the in-cylinder pressure at the crankangle of maximum variability in peak pressure instead of indicated mean effective pressure. The CO and CO2 emissions and the flow velocity variations in the transfer port and the exhaust pipe were measured. Combustion of each cycle was grouped into misfiring, incomplete firing or firing by the criteria of the in-cylinder pressure. In the cycle before misfiring, the CO and CO2 concentration showed high level and the first peak of the exhaust flow showed large velocity and the positive velocity remained for long duration, and the exhaust and the transfer port flow were steeply decelerated to negative velocity midway between scavenge port opening and bottom dead center.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Gas Flow Behavior in a Two-Stroke Engine

The velocity variations of the burnt exhaust gas in a practical fired two-stroke engine operating under wide-open-throttle conditions were measured by a fiber LDV ( FLDV ). The characteristics of the exhaust flow are discussed in comparison with those in motoring and in a transfer port. The relation between velocity variation and pressure wave propagation in the exhaust pipe are also investigated. The measured results show that the velocity distribution in the exhaust pipe can be characterized as pulsative flow. The flow characteristics had large influence by the combustion pressure wave propagation. During exhaust and transfer-port opening, the intake flow and the blow-down flow have similar velocity gradient and peak location. The velocity distribution in the exhaust pipe was also measured, which showed pulsative flow variation having no recirculating vortex.
Technical Paper

Intake Flow Behavior in a Small Two-Stroke Engine

Intake flow rate of practical small two-stroke engines has been controlled by the opening ratio of throttle valve. The purpose of this study is to investigate flow behavior behind a carburetor for different throttle opening ratios in relation with the pressures. Velocities in the intake pipe were measured by a fiber LDV together with pressures at different positions under motoring and firing conditions at 3000 rpm. The results show that the recirculation vortex were formed behind the carburetor and its position and size depended on the throttle opening ratios. The variation of intake volume flow rate with the opening ratio was made clear quantitatively.