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Training / Education

AS13000 8D Problem Solving Requirements for Suppliers

2022-07-05
AS13000 defines the Problem-Solving standard for suppliers within the aero-engine sector, with the Eight Disciplines (8D) problem solving method the basis for this standard. This two-day course provides attendees with a comprehensive and standardized set of tools to become an 8D practitioner and meets all the requirements of the training syllabus in AS13000. Successful application of 8D achieves robust corrective and preventive actions to reduce the risk of repeat occurrences and minimize the cost of poor quality.
Training / Education

AS9145 Requirements for Advanced Product Quality Planning and Production Part Approval

2022-06-28
Production and continual improvement of safe and reliable products is key in the aviation, space and defense industries. Customer and regulatory requirements must not only be met, but they are typically expected to exceeded requirements. Due to globalization, the supply chain of this industry has been expanded to countries which were not part of it in the past and has complicated the achievement of requirements compliance and customer satisfaction. The IAQG has established and deployed the AS9145 Standard, as a step to help achieve these objectives.
Training / Education

Introduction to Cyber Security for Commercial Aviation

2022-04-07
Despite the advantages of electronic flight bags (EFB), passenger entertainment and email access during flights, and the ability to access aircraft repair manuals electronically, computer interconnectivity throughout aviation has opened the aviation sector to cyber-attacks that could impact flights, data, and safety. This two-day seminar is intended to introduce aviation professionals to the need to implement cyber security throughout commercial aviation including the supply chain.
Training / Education

AS13003 Measurement System Analysis (MSA) Requirements for Aerospace Engine Supplier Quality

2022-04-06
AS 13003:2015 stipulates requirements to establish an acceptable measurement system (for variable and attribute features) for use on aerospace engines parts and assemblies.  Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA) is used to evaluate and improve measurement systems in the workplace because it evaluates the test method, measuring instruments, and the process of acquiring measurements. The Aerospace Engine Supplier Quality (AESQ) Strategy Group published AS13003 to define the minimum requirements for conducting MSA for variable attribute assessment on characteristics as defined on the drawing specification.
Technical Paper

Aspects of Migrating from Decentralized to Centralized E/E Architectures

2022-03-29
2022-01-0747
As centralization of automotive E/E architectures becomes reality for future vehicles, it is crucial that existing assets be reused in the most efficient and effective manner. We report on our experience developing a new centralized E/E architecture for a propulsion domain, and migrating the corresponding propulsion elements of an existing decentralized, CAN-based architecture to a prototype of the centralized propulsion domain. Our migration adopts automotive Ethernet and supporting standards as a next-generation communications backbone technology; a next-generation computation platform from automotive supplier NXP; and a new automotive virtualization solution from OpenSynergy. We discuss aspects of legacy software re-use and adaptation; modification of vehicle HiL simulation models used in testing; existing vendor tool support; and implications arising from functional safety and the ISO 26262 standard.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of J3112: A/C Compressor Oil Separator Effectiveness Test Standard

2022-03-29
2022-01-0193
SAE J-Standard J3112 – “A/C Compressor Oil Separator Effectiveness Test Standard” – was developed to provide an analytical means of determining if an a/c compressor with oil separator functionality meets the U.S. EPA criteria of a minimum 50% effectiveness in order to qualify for menu credits for greenhouse gas reduction, per CFR Title 40, §86.1868-12. From the start of the a/c efficiency credit program, OEMs could qualify for menu credit items without providing data on the effectiveness of the product being implemented, but EPA regulations required supporting data from 2020 MY through the end of the current published regulations in 2025 MY. J3112 was developed by the SAE Interior Climate Control MVAC Supplier Committee in order to provide a standardized procedure for determining oil separator effectiveness in order to comply with the EPA requirements for 2020-2025 model years.
Technical Paper

Loading Classification for Fatigue Design applied to Automotive Time-Series

2022-03-29
2022-01-0254
This study focuses on variable amplitude loadings applied to automotive chassis parts experiencing carmaker’s specific proving grounds. They are measured with respect to time at the wheel centres and composed of the six forces and torques at each wheel, within the standard vehicle reference frame. In the scope of high cycle fatigue, the loadings considered are supposedly acting under the structure yield stress. Among the loadings encountered during the vehicle lifetime, two classes stand out: • Driven Road: loads measured during the vehicle manoeuvre (cornering, braking). • Random Road: random loads mainly coming from the road asperity. To separate both effects, a frequency decomposition method is proposed before applying any lifetime assessment methods. The usual rainflow counting method is applied to the Driven Road signal. These loadings, depending on the vehicle dynamic, are time-correlated. Thus, the load spectra is set only thanks to the vehicle accelerations time-measurement.
Technical Paper

Attacking vehicles with ransomware: Watch the horizon

2022-03-29
2022-01-0358
Ransomware use is rampant throughout most industries. With the number of successful ransomware attacks through the industrial economy, this feels like a tsunami of attacks. These attacks seemingly originate from anywhere with an internet connection. There are vast numbers of bad actors creating these attacks, all focused on your systems. With the large number of attacks, it is granted there have been many breaches. While there have been a large number of successful attacks, each attack’s objectives have varied. These have historically been to generate revenue in the form of fees for the decrypt key or a promise not to publish exfiltrated data. The landscape has become saturated with ransomware attacks on consumers and the enterprise. There has been extensive training for staff in an effort to mitigate these issues. The next potential targets are vehicles and ground systems. These, as targets, have not been evaluated via a full risk assessment to the recommended extent.
Technical Paper

Illuminated Vehicle Logos - Investigation on Potential Distraction and their Influence on Road Safety

2022-03-29
2022-01-0797
The current development of automotive lighting strives towards more and more lighting installations on vehicles. Additionally, to that, manufacturers start animating these lighting installations as coming home or leaving home greetings from the car to the driver. In the SAE Paper No. 2021-01-0852 it is shown, that these additional animations are in fact not distracting at all to other road users and when used correctly, e.g. in a sequential turn indicator, can be beneficial to the overall traffic safety. This study then aims to investigate the potential influence of illuminated logos on road safety. European law makers forbid the use of illuminated advertisement on vehicles to minimize the danger of distraction of other road users and thereby negatively influencing traffic safety. As of now, the active illumination of the manufacturer’s logo is considered advertisement.
Technical Paper

Identifying Cybersecurity Focus Areas in Connected Cars Based on United Nations Regulation No. 155 Attack Vectors and Beyond

2022-03-29
2022-01-0116
The arrival of 5G will enable vehicles to become better connected. In order to allow this evolution to manifest safely, the UNECE World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) introduced the United Nations Regulation No. 155(UN-R155) on January 2021, with expectations that at least 54 countries will mandate it starting July 2022. This regulation provides 69 attack vectors manufacturers are required to secure against, although it does not include specific countermeasures. Security methods and corresponding technologies change with time and are influenced by evolving connected car technologies as well as the threat landscape. Implementing effective cybersecurity means conducting a thorough risk analysis and prioritizing what needs to be achieved. Trend Micro Research conducted a risk analysis on each of the 69 attack vectors from a current and future perspective. In addition, we went beyond the attack vectors listed in UN-R155.
Technical Paper

Designing the Design Space: Evaluating Best Practices in Tradespace Exploration, Analysis and Decision-Making

2022-03-29
2022-01-0354
Determining the validity of the design space early in the conceptualization of a project can make the difference between project success and failure. Early assessment of technical feasibility, project risk, technical readiness and realistic performance expectations based on models with different levels of fidelity, uncertainty, and technical robustness is a challenging mission critical task for large procurement projects. Tradespace exploration uses model-based engineering analysis, design exploration methods, and multi-objective optimization techniques to enable project stakeholders to make informed decisions and tradeoffs concerning the scope, schedule, budget, performance and risk profile of a project. As the intersection with a number of project stakeholders, tradespace studies can provide a significant impact upon the direction and decision-making in a project.
Technical Paper

How to Share Benefits of Smart Transportation and Mobility: A Study Based on Cooperative Game Theory

2022-03-29
2022-01-0147
Shared mobility will become an important part in the future smart transportation and contribute to sustainable development. However, recently a large number of pioneers in this market have failed in making profits, and have to declare bankrupt or give up this promising business. One main cause is that it is difficult to find a method to allocate the profits to all the partners reasonably. In other words, there is still no effective business model in smart mobility. This study discusses cooperation among all stakeholders, including four species of participants, in smart mobility business alliance based on the theory of community ecology. The leaders are the enterprises who offer business platforms for the other players. The enablers include OEMs, hardware and software suppliers who contribute to smart mobility with intelligent vehicle products and technologies. The supporters can provide infrastructure and market channels.
Technical Paper

UDS Security Access for highly-constrained ECUs

2022-03-29
2022-01-0132
Legacy electronic control units are, nowadays, required to implement cybersecurity measures, but they often do not have all the facilities that are necessary to realise industry-standard cybersecurity controls. Such systems must still be protected with a sufficient level of rigor against attackers who wish to modify their operation or extract confidential information from them. Due to cost constraints, it is desirable that such systems can be used in vehicles across the fleets of many different manufacturers without software changes. A critical interface to defend is the Unified Diagnostics Service (UDS) interface which is used in so many areas across the whole vehicle lifecycle. While the classic UDS service $27 (Security Access) has a reputation for poor cybersecurity, there is nothing inherent in the way it operates which prevents a secure access-control from being implemented.
Technical Paper

Efficiency Improvement of Electric Motor Drives using Dynamic Motor Drive Technology

2022-03-29
2022-01-0721
Transitioning to battery electric vehicles is the largest opportunity available to the automotive industry today. Improving the vehicle’s range and reducing the vehicle’s production cost will help expedite that transition. To achieve acceptable range, most BEVs depend on highly efficient electric motors containing rare-earth permanent magnets (PM). However, rare-earth materials have supply chain issues that have caused price volatility and increased the risk of transportation electrification. To mitigate that supply concern, Tula Technology is working to increase the efficiency of alternative designs. It has developed a novel motor control strategy called Dynamic Motor Drive (DMD®), which is particularly suitable for rare-earth-free or reduced rare-earth permanent magnet-based electric motor drives. DMD reduces the light-load losses of electric motor drives by intermittently pulsing motor torque.
Technical Paper

Custom Bench Top Testing as a supplement for Reverse Engineering for MIL-Aero systems

2022-03-08
2022-01-0001
Military and Aerospace systems electronics operate with extended lifetimes beyond normal commercial system. It’s not uncommon for printed circuit board manufacturers to go out of business or the integrated circuit manufacturer to discontinue their line of parts. This creates an obsolescence issue for the sustainment of the system. One solution of obsolescence is for an organization to reverse engineer the hardware and then replicate the design. Traditional methods involve continuity checking of the original board in order to create a netlist, schematic, and then Gerber files used to manufacture the board. However, electrical testing is required in order to verify results. This paper explores benefits of leveraging custom bench top testing in conjunction with the reverse engineering processes, to not only verify the results of the continuity checking, but to enhance efficiency and reduce the time to completion of a sustainment effort.
Training / Education

FAA Part 21 Certification Procedures for Products and Parts

2022-03-08
Part 21 is the FAA regulation that provides the regulatory framework to conduct certification of products and parts. This includes the engineering, airworthiness, production and quality systems. The aerospace industry is hinged around compliance with Part 21; however, comprehension of Part 21 and its role in civil certification is challenging. This course is designed to provide participants with an understanding of the processes that encompass aircraft certification, including compliance with FARs, certification procedures and post certification responsibilities.
Technical Paper

Achieving compliance with RTCA DO-254/EUROCAE ED-80 Design Assurance Guidance for Airborne Electronic Hardware: Quality Management Perspective

2022-03-08
2022-01-0007
RTCA DO-254/ED-80 “Design Assurance Guidance for Airborne Electronic Hardware” is a widely accepted industry standard to ensure safety in avionics hardware. FAA and EASA have recognized DO-254 as an acceptable means of compliance with the applicable airworthiness regulations for the electronic hardware. While microprocessor based complex hardware utilization in safety critical avionic hardware are increasing, and DO-254 compliance is mandated by the certification authorities, development of DO-254 compliant or safety certifiable hardware is becoming more and more important and provides competitive advantage in the industry. The avionics manufacturers need to correlate their existing processes and procedures with DO-254 in order to satisfy DO-254 objectives in their own quality management system structure, which may be challenging and tricky.
Technical Paper

Identification and Analysis of Key Technical Elements and Prospects for Software-Defined Vehicles

2022-01-31
2022-01-7002
The new technological revolution is promoting the intelligent upgrade of vehicles. Traditional vehicles are gradually developing into intelligent connected vehicles (ICVs). New features such as autonomous driving, smart cockpits, and Internet of Vehicle of ICVs have brought users safe, comfortable and interesting travel experiences. Vehicle software, containing a wealth of functions and continuously outputting valuable data, has become the core of the definition of vehicle functions. Traditional vehicle hardware has gradually decoupled from software and become standardized, modular and shared resources. At present, the era of Software-Defined Vehicle (SDV) is coming soon, which is bound to bring subversive changes to both vehicle technologies and industrial ecologies. However, the lack of comprehensive understanding and the clear development way of SDV are ubiquitous in all kinds of corporations in vehicle industry. This will make them be caught off guard when SDV really comes.
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